CULTURAL CLASH in the CHESAPEAKE When the English landed in 1607, the chieftain Powhatan dominated the native peoples living in the James River area. He was the leader of Powhatan’s confederacy.
Initially, Powhatan viewed the English aspotential allies, but relations grew tenseas starving colonists took to raidingIndian food.
Describe Lord De La Warr’s “Irishtactics” used against Powhatan.How did the Indians respond?
How did John Rolfe end the First Anglo-Powhatan War in 1614?The Second Anglo-Powhatan War in 1644: 1. Indian goals 2. Victor 3. ConsequencesHow did the English view the Indians in North America versus the Spanishtreatment of the natives in Latin America?
THE INDIANS’ NEW WORLDThe fate of the Powhatans foreshadowed the destinies of indigenous peoples throughoutthe continent as European settlement progressed. Large-scale European colonizationdisrupted Native American life on a vast scale, inducing unprecedented demographic andcultural transformations.Disease was by far the greatest disrupter. Disease took more than human life; itextinguished entire cultures. Epidemics robbed native peoples of the elders whopreserved oral traditions that held clans together, and the decimation forced migrationsof native peoples.Trade also transformed Indian life. The barter system gave way to European commercein increasing areas. The introduction of firearms ushered-in an escalating cycle ofIndian-on-Indian violence, fueled by the lure and demands of European trade goods (skins& pelts for European goods).Indians along the Atlantic seaboard felt the most ferocious effects of European contact.Farther inland, native peoples had the advantage of time, space, and numbers.
VIRGINIA: CHILD of TOBACCOWhat emerged as the “economic savior” of Virginia?Slavery in Virginia planted the seeds of the North American slave system. Was slavery widespreadin Virginia? Identify the evolution of slavery in Virginia from 1650 until 1700.
Describe the significance of theVirginia House of Burgesses, whichwas created in Jamestown (1619).
Was King James I supportive of the Virginiacolony?Discussion Question: Rank the following liststarting with the one you think had the mostsignificant consequence. Justify your rankingand speculate as to what might have happenedhad these events not occurred. a. Cultivation of tobacco b. Introduction of slavery c. The establishment of the Virginia House of Burgesses.
MARYLAND: CATHOLIC HAVEN Maryland – the second plantation colony but the fourth English colony to be planted – was founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore, of a prominent English Catholic family. Identify his two primary motives for establishing Maryland.
Explain the source of the socialconflict that flared into openrebellion and caused theBaltimore family to lose itsproprietary rights for a time.Was Maryland a prosperouscolony? What was the majoreconomic activity? And, whatwas the primary source of labor?Explain the famed Act ofToleration. What was itssignificance?
THE WEST INDIES: WAY STATION To MAINLAND AMERICA
How did the English secure several islands?What was the major economic activity? Contrast the agricultural differences ascompared to the Chesapeake colonies. Describe the rationale behind the slave “codes.” What would be the future significance for these “codes?”
How did economic conditions in the WestIndies impact on the future Carolinas?
COLONIZING the CAROLINASCivil war convulsed England in the 1640’s, interrupting colonization for nearly 20 years.The Restoration Period marked the resumption of empire building. How did itcontribute to founding and settlement of the Carolinas? Aristocratic founders of Carolina hoped to grow foodstuffs to provision the sugar plantation of Barbados. What emerged as the primary export product? What was the chief labor source? And what became the busiest seaport in the South? How did the Catholic Spaniards react to the “intrusion” of the Protestant heretics in Carolina?
THE EMERGENCE of NORTH CAROLINA How did North Carolina emerge separately? What distinguishes North Carolina from South Carolina and Virginia? Identify the two similarities that North Carolina shared with Rhode Island. What would be the fate of the Native Americans?
LATE-COMING GEORGIA: THE BUFFER COLONYWhy was Georgia valued by the English crown?How did the crown reward the colony’s value”
Who were the founders? Who wasthe highest profile founder?What the colony’s chief goal?Why did the colony grow with suchslowness?
THE PLANTATION COLONIES (SUMMARY)Identify the distinctive features shared by the plantation colonies:1. ___________________________ 5. ___________________________2. ___________________________ 6. ___________________________3. ___________________________ 7. ___________________________4. ___________________________