HAYES-TILDEN STANDOFF of 1876In the presidential election of 1876, the candidates were Republican Ruthurford B. Hayesand Democrat Samuel Tilden. Provide a brief profile of both. Hayes Tilden
The results: Tilden 184 (4,284,020) Hayes 165 (4,036,572)Tilden won both the electoral and popular vote, but 185 electoral votes were needed to winand there were 20 disputed votes. Which states created the electoral crisis? Howwould the election be decided?
THE COMPROMISE of 1877Congress passed the Electoral Count Act of 1877. An electoral commission consisting of15 members was established. It consisted of 8 Republicans and 7 Democrats.The Commission ruled, in a partisan vote, that all 15 disputed votes belonged to Hayesand he won the election by a vote of 185-184. The Democrats and the South reactedangrily, claiming fraud.Describe both the Democrat and Republican concessions of the compromise. Whowas the big “loser” with this compromise? Explain the significance.
With the end of Reconstruction, “Redeemer” governments returned to power in the South. The whiteSouth rejoiced at the restoration of “home rule.” In this pro-southern cartoon, what does it depict asthe principle differences between the two regimes? The left side of the cartoon shows the South suffering under Grant, who is riding on a huge “carpetbag” guarded by Union solders. From what you know of the Reconstruction period in the South, explain the meaning of the huge carpetbag & the presence of the Union soldiers.What point does the left side of the cartoon make by showing the South in ruins? On the right is adepiction of Hayes. In what way did he adopt a “let „em alone alone policy” toward the South?
THE BIRTH of JIM CROW in the POST-RECONSTRUCTION SOUTHThe Democratic South speedily solidified and swiftly suppressed the now-friendless blacks.Shamelessly relying on fraud and intimidation, white Democrats (“Redeemers”) resumed political powerin the South and exercised it ruthlessly. Blacks, as well as poor whites, were forced into sharecroppingand tenant farming. Resisting blacks faced white retaliation.
With white southerners back in political control, daily discrimination against blacksintensified. What had begun as the informal separation of blacks & whites in theimmediate post-war years developed by the 1890‟s into systematic state-level legalcodes of segregation known as Jim Crow laws. Can you provide examples of thesediscriminatory and repressive state statutes?How did the Supreme Court validate the South’s segregational social order in thecase of Plessy v. Ferguson?
RUTHERFORD HAYES – “HIS FRAUDULENCY” Labor violence marred his administration – Railroad Strike of 1877 – why did the outcome hurt Hayes politically?
Hayes confronted controversy surrounding a flood of Chinese immigrants into California. ManyCalifornians opposed this flood of Chinese. An anti-Chinese movement was led by Dennis Kearney.
Congress responded by passing the ChineseExclusionBill in 1879 – Hayes promptly vetoed it, thussealing his political fate.The Chinese Exclusion Act would be passed in 1882.What was the primary provision of this law? Howlong would it remain in effect?Some exclusionists even tried to strip native-bornChinese-Americans of their citizenship, but theSupreme Court upheld the provision of the 14thAmendment protecting persons born in the U.S.In four years, Hayes accomplished little and wasembroiled in divisive controversies.
JAMES GARFIELD In the presidential election of 1880, the Stalwarts and Half- Breeds were deadlocked. James Garfield was the compromise candidate for the Republicans, nominated on the 35th ballot. Stalwart Chester Arthur was the party compromise for Garfield‟s running mate. Democrats nominated Winfield Hancock, a Civil War veteran. It was another mud-slinging campaign and Garfield wins in a close election (a margin of approx. 39,000 votes), but a comfortable margin in the electoral count.
After his victory, Garfield rewarded hissponsor, James Blaine, with the office ofSecretary of State.Garfield was besieged by office-seekers.The attitude being, “to the victor goes thespoils.”
On September 19, 1881 Garfield was shot by Charles Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker. Guiteau: “I am a Stalwart; now Arthur is president!” Garfield lingered in agony for 11 weeks before dying. His death jolted Americans to realize the need to end patronage.Charles Guiteau
CHESTER ARTHUR Chester Arthur ascends to the presidency with Garfield‟s death. Americans had low expectations for Arthur, a former Conkling spoilsman. Observers underestimate Arthur – he refused to grant political appointments to Conklingites, and he supported civil service reform. The public disgust with the circumstances of Garfield‟s death initiated the reform that Arthur embraces. Arthur also takes a cue when Republicans lose control of the House in 1882.
The civil service reform movement culminated with the Pendleton Act (1883), referred to as the “Magna Carta” of civil service reform. What was the primary provision of this legislation? What would be its future impact?Arthur paid the ultimate politicalprice for his support of reform bybeing abandoned by his party.In 1884, the Republicans dumpedArthur and turned to Blaine.
GROVER CLEVELAND (ONLY SPLIT PRESIDENT)In 1884, Republicans met in Chicago and nominated James Blaine. Some Republicanreformers bolted the party to become mugwumps, who supported the Democraticnominee, Grover Cleveland.
The Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland, a former mayor of Buffalo and governor ofNew York, who had a record of honest and efficient govt. service. During the mud-slinging of the campaign, Cleveland was accused of fathering an illegitimate son. Headmitted to this and accepted his responsibility. How did a Republican clergyman cost Blaine the election? Grover Cleveland
On election day, Cleveland prevailed in a narrow contest. The election loss for Blaine wasa result of losing the Mugwumps and the loss of New York. For many, voter choicenarrowed down to a choice between public dishonesty and private immorality.Cleveland: 219 (4,879,507) Blaine: 182 (4,850,293)
Is this a pro-Cleveland cartoonist, or anti-Cleveland cartoonist? What is the cartoonist‟s message?
Grover Cleveland was the first Democratic president since Buchanan. He was pro-bigbusiness and a supporter of laissez-faire.Initially a supporter of reform, he eventually fired 120,000 incumbent office-holders andreplaced them with Democrats.He targeted the veterans Pension Bureau and vetoed the addition of hundreds ofthousands of veterans to the pension rolls. This cost him dearly politically.
Cleveland battled for a lower tariff. Hightariffs in the post-war era protected BigBusiness and generated huge surpluses inthe Treasury.Cleveland saw lower tariffs as lower pricesfor consumers and less protection formonopolies.In 1887 Cleveland proposed lowering thetariff – Big Business attacked Cleveland andvowed that he would not win in ‟88.Two important legislative acts passedduring Cleveland‟s term:The Dawes Act The Interstate Commerce ActExplain the significance of these twoacts.Cleveland also reclaimed 81 million acres ofland from private holdings, land to be setaside for conservation purposes.
HARRISON OUSTS CLEVELAND in 1888For the first time in years, a real issue divided the two parties in 1888 (tariff).Cleveland was reluctantly re-nominated by the Democrats and the Republicans nominatedBenjamin Harrison. Big business money supported the Republicans and a higher tariff.On election day, Cleveland won the popular vote, but lost the electoral vote. Benjamin Harrison
Intimidating House Speaker, ThomasReed, was pivotal in increasing pensionrolls and the passage of the McKinleyTariff Act of 1890.Farmers would be hit particularly hard.
THE DRUMBEAT of DISCONTENTThe politics of 1892 was transformed with the formation of the People’s Party, or“Populists.” The party was rooted in the farmer‟s discontent over the high tariff andtheir resulting economic hardships. Identify the the components of the Populist’spolitical platform.
An epidemic of nationwide strikes in thesummer of 1892 raised the political prospectsof the Populist Party.The Homestead Strike galvanized grass rootsopposition against Big Business.Who was the Populist candidate forpresident in 1892? How effective werethey on election day?Why did the Populists fail to become apolitical force in the South? What was thesocial significance of this?
THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION of 1892With Populists divided and the Republicans discredited, Grover Cleveland took office onceagain in 1893, the only president ever re-elected after defeat.
This is a cartoon of former President Clevelandhaving trouble getting up to fight a second boutwith another president.Harrison‟s boxing glove is labeled“protectionism.” Cleveland‟s glove is labeled“free trade.” This shows how the two mendiffered over a very big issue in the election of1892.Describe that issue and explain how these twomen differed over it.
Hardly had Cleveland taken office when the devastating depression of 1893 occurred.Lasting about 4 years, it was the worst economic downturn of the 19th century. Whatwere the primary contributing causes?Cleveland, who had earlier been bothered by a surplus, was now burdened with adeepening deficit. The country‟s gold reserve was being dangerously depleted.To halt the bleeding of gold, Cleveland engineered a repeal of the Sherman SilverPurchase Act of 1890. Repeal of this act only partially stopped the hemorrhaging of goldfrom the Treasury. The depletion continued. Early in 1895 Cleveland turned in desperation to J.P. Morgan, “the banker‟s banker,” and the head of a Wall Street syndicate. After tense negotiations, the bankers agreed to lend the govt. $65 million in gold. The govt. would pay steep interest, but the deal temporarily helped restore confidence in the nation‟s finances.
CLEVELAND BREEDS a BACKLASHThe bond deal stirred up a storm. To many it symbolized all that was wicked and graspingin American politics. To the end, Cleveland defended his Wall St. deal.Cleveland suffered further embarrassment with the passage of the Wilson-GormanTariff in 1894. What were the key provisions of the legislation? Why were Populistsand other disaffected groups disillusioned with the Supreme Court’s role?Thus, the same tariff issue that drove out the Republicans in 1890 would play a role indriving out the Democrats in 1896. The depression also was a primary factor in theDemocrat‟s demise.The first “hit” for the Democrats would occur with their poor showing in thecongressional elections of 1894. The Republicans were eagerly awaiting the presidentialcontest of 1896.
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