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ifrs:Revenue<br />us-gaap: GainLossOnSaleOfOilAndGasProperty<br />de-gaap:BilanzsummeSummeAktiva<br />Cross-lingual ontolo...
Context and Motivation<br />Monnet use case in financial domain<br />query financial information<br />Cross-vocabulary<br ...
Finance Terminology is complex!<br />“minimum finance lease payments receivable,<br />   at present value,<br />   end of ...
complex structure (conceptually & linguistically)</li></li></ul><li>Some insight in finance terminology<br />Domain Termin...
Break down complexity<br />3-faceted lexical enrichment<br />Semantic<br />Linguistic<br />Terminological<br />asset<br />...
XBRL – Semantic Analysis<br />
XBRL – Semantic Analysis<br />
XBRL – Semantic Analysis<br />“Enhance semantics to<br />facilitate translation and<br />information extraction.”<br />
XBRL – Terminological Analysis<br />ifrs:MinimumFinanceLeasePaymentsReceivableAtPresentValue<br />ifrs:MinimumFinanceLease...
XBRL – Linguistic Analysis<br />Financial text<br />“…  received   minimum finance lease payments  …” <br />verb<br />“…  ...
Outline<br />1. Research challenge and motivation<br />2. Ontology Translation<br />3. Lexicalization (lemon)<br />4. CLOB...
Translation using STL<br />Models developed in Monnet<br />English / German / Spanish / Dutch<br />…Net2<br />Afrikaans? <...
Application in Machine Translation<br />in Dutch<br />available-for-sale financial assets<br />IFRS,  SAPTerm,  GoogleDefi...
Application in Machine Translation<br />in Afrikaans<br />available-for-sale financial assets<br />IFRS,  SAPTerm,  Google...
Application in Machine Translation<br />in Spanish<br />available-for-sale financial assets<br />IFRS,  SAPTerm,  GoogleDe...
Outline<br />1. Research challenge and motivation<br />2. Ontology Translation<br />3. Lexicalization (lemon)<br />4. CLOB...
Why do we need a lexicon?<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finance_lease<br />“loads of unlinked domain-specific<br />ter...
Lexicon standards overview<br />ISO (XML)<br />TEI (Text Encoding Initiative)<br />LMF (Lexical Markup Framework)<br />W3C...
SKOS – Multilingual Information<br />SKOS concepts with…<br />germ relations<br />multilingual labels<br />resource refere...
SKOS – Multilingual Information<br />Not much uptake yet?              from http://data.nytimes.com/<br />
Ontology-Text Mismatch<br />‘Edificio-historico’ vs. ‘…edificio, declarado Monumento Histórico…’<br />>> goes beyond SKOS ...
A Lexicon Model for Ontologies<br />Requirements for ‘ontology-lexicon’ model<br />Represent linguistic information relati...
Was there a solution already? - SKOS<br />Simple Knowledge Organization System – SKOS<br />General model for formalizing t...
Was there a solution already? - GOLD<br />General Ontology for Linguistic Description – GOLD<br />Community-based ontology...
Was there a solution already? - OWN<br />OntoWordNet – OWN<br />Formal specification of WordNet through extension and axio...
Was there a solution already? - LMF<br />Lexical Markup Framework – LMF<br />General model for formalizing and sharing of ...
lemon<br />lexicon model for ontologies: ‘lemon’<br />General model for formalizing lexical features relative to independe...
Many solutions…<br />…with an a priori amount of linguistics or semantics!<br />
lemon: Overview<br />
lemon: Lexicon<br />Lexicon: wild animals<br />entry<br />entry<br />entry<br />LE: Kudu<br />LE: shaped like a Kudu<br />...
lemon: Form<br />wild animals<br />otherForm<br />abstractForm<br />canonicalForm<br />LE<br />F<br />LE<br />F<br />LE<br...
lemon: Structure<br />?<br />LE: shaped like a Kudu<br />LE: shaped<br />LE: like<br />LE: a<br />LE: Kudu<br />LexicalEnt...
lemon: Structure - Example<br />:Component<br />:Component<br />:Component<br />:Component<br />lexeme<br />edge<br />edge...
lemon: Meaning & Reference<br />LE: kudu<br />lexeme<br />sense<br />LS<br />sememe<br />reference<br />
lemon: Meaning & Reference<br />LE: kudu<br />sense<br />sense<br />LE: greater     <br />      kudu<br />narrower<br />LS...
lemon: Meaning & Reference<br />LE:greater<br />kudu<br />LE:lesser    <br />kudu<br />sense<br />sense<br />lexical<br />...
lemon: Meaning & Reference<br />LE: kudu<br />LE: goat<br />sense<br />sense<br />ontological<br />incompatibility<br />LS...
lemon: Lexical Projection<br />LexicalEntry can introduce a syntactic frame with arguments that are mapped to LexicalSense...
Lexical projection (Verb Frame)<br />syntactic frame<br />S (<br />      NP VP(<br />        VB NP<br />      )<br />    )...
…more frames with LexInfo2<br />http://lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#DitransitiveFrame<br />ditransitive : Frame<br />s...
…more frames with LexInfo2<br />http://lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#DitransitiveFrame_To<br />ditransitive_to : Frame<...
Or Zulu morphology…<br />LE:angoma<br />sense<br />sense<br />class = lemon:MorphologicalPattern<br />LE:tolo<br />:zuluNC...
Lemon Editor and Generator<br />http://monnetproject.deri.ie/Lemon-Editor<br />“asset-backed-debts”<br />Finance Ontology<...
Outline<br />1. Research challenge and motivation<br />2. Ontology Translation & Inform. Extraction<br />3. Lexicalization...
What is CLOBIE<br />Information Extraction<br />Monolingual<br />No semantics<br />Cross-lingual Information Extraction<br...
What is CLOBIE<br />Information extraction(monolingual)<br />Information extraction (multilingual)<br />Information extrac...
Application in Information Extraction (IE)<br />:MinimumFinanceLeasePaymentsReceivable<br />   rdfs:subClassOf xbrli:monet...
CLOBIE Interdisciplinary<br />Statistical MT<br />Rule-based MT<br />Localization<br />Term extraction<br />Relation extra...
Why CLOBIE?<br />Many unstructured resources (News, FinReps)<br />Knowledge in SW is often:<br />Not dynamic (no regular, ...
CLOBIE blackboard architecture<br />CLOBIE Search<br />read<br />token_id /<br />POS<br />token_id /<br />token_id<br />se...
Tok. / POS</li></ul>Linguistic Analyzer<br /><ul><li> Morphology
 Dependency Parser</li></ul>Term Analyzer<br />Semantic Analyzer<br /><ul><li> Terminology DB</li></ul>Semantic / Terminol...
CLOBIE Data set (Wind Energy)<br />10 companies in Wind Energy domain<br />Financial reports in<br />German / Spanish / En...
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Cross-lingual ontology lexicalisation, translation and information extraction Net2 workshop, University of South Africa (UNISA)

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Cross-lingual ontology lexicalisation, translation and information extraction Net2 workshop, University of South Africa (UNISA)

  1. 1. ifrs:Revenue<br />us-gaap: GainLossOnSaleOfOilAndGasProperty<br />de-gaap:BilanzsummeSummeAktiva<br />Cross-lingual ontology lexicalisation, translation and information extraction<br />Net2 workshop, University of South Africa<br />Tobias Wunner<br />DERI, National University of Ireland, Galway<br />be-gaaap:MinderwaardenBijDeRealisatieVanVasteActiva<br /><ul><li> Copyright 2010 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved, Paul Buitelaar</li></li></ul><li>Outline<br />1. Research challenge and motivation<br />2. Ontology Translation<br />3. Lexicalization (lemon)<br />4. CLOBIE (CL Ontology-based Inf. Extraction)<br />
  2. 2. Context and Motivation<br />Monnet use case in financial domain<br />query financial information<br />Cross-vocabulary<br />Cross-lingual<br />Get result in your own language<br />Research challenges<br />localization & translation of vocabularies<br />cross-lingual ontology-based information extraction<br />
  3. 3. Finance Terminology is complex!<br />“minimum finance lease payments receivable,<br /> at present value,<br /> end of period not later than one year”<br />representative term of financial domain<br /><ul><li>16 words
  4. 4. complex structure (conceptually & linguistically)</li></li></ul><li>Some insight in finance terminology<br />Domain Terminology<br />(SAPTerm)<br />Dictionary<br />(WordNet)<br />XBRL<br />(IFRS)<br />Domain<br />Related<br />Domain<br />Independent<br />Domain<br />Specific<br />Domain<br />Independent<br />Domain<br />Related<br />
  5. 5. Break down complexity<br />3-faceted lexical enrichment<br />Semantic<br />Linguistic<br />Terminological<br />asset<br />[asset]<br />[available-for-sale]<br />[financial]<br />[financial asset]<br />[non-financial asset]<br />[available-for-sale financial asset]<br />Noun_Sing: asset<br />Noun_Plural: assets<br />?P: available-for-sale<br />Adjective: financial<br />NP: available-for-sale fin. asset<br />VP: to sell financial assets<br />is-a<br />is-a<br />financial<br />asset<br />non-financial<br />asset<br />is-a<br />Term<br />decomposition<br />available-for-sale<br />financial<br />asset<br />
  6. 6. XBRL – Semantic Analysis<br />
  7. 7. XBRL – Semantic Analysis<br />
  8. 8. XBRL – Semantic Analysis<br />“Enhance semantics to<br />facilitate translation and<br />information extraction.”<br />
  9. 9. XBRL – Terminological Analysis<br />ifrs:MinimumFinanceLeasePaymentsReceivableAtPresentValue<br />ifrs:MinimumFinanceLeasePaymentsReceivable<br />Minimum finance lease payments receivable, at present value<br />sapTerm:payments<br />googleDefine:leasePayments<br />sapTerm:financeLease<br />googleDefine:Finance_lease<br />Domain<br />Independent<br />Domain<br />Related<br />Domain<br />Specific<br />Domain<br />Related<br />Domain<br />Independent<br />Domain<br />Independent<br />Domain<br />Specific<br />
  10. 10. XBRL – Linguistic Analysis<br />Financial text<br />“… received minimum finance lease payments …” <br />verb<br />“… lease payment …” <br />complex<br />singular<br />simple<br />minimum finance lease payments receivable<br />XBRL term<br />adverb<br />… lease payments …<br />plural<br />
  11. 11. Outline<br />1. Research challenge and motivation<br />2. Ontology Translation<br />3. Lexicalization (lemon)<br />4. CLOBIE (CL Ontology-based Inf. Extraction)<br />
  12. 12. Translation using STL<br />Models developed in Monnet<br />English / German / Spanish / Dutch<br />…Net2<br />Afrikaans? <br />Zulu?<br />Xhosa?<br />…<br />ifrs:MinimumFinanceLeasePaymentsPayable<br />ifrs:ProfitLossBeforeTax<br />ifrs:Revenue<br />
  13. 13. Application in Machine Translation<br />in Dutch<br />available-for-sale financial assets<br />IFRS, SAPTerm, GoogleDefine<br />1. term analysis using:<br />domain TM (IFRS), Linked Open Data (DBPedia),<br />Translation services (GoogleTranslate)<br />[available-for-sale] [financial] [assets]<br />2. translate subterms using:<br />[voorverkoopbeschikbare] [financiële] [activa]<br />3. term synthesis using:<br />grammars (rules, statistical models)<br />voor verkoop beschikbare financiële activa<br />
  14. 14. Application in Machine Translation<br />in Afrikaans<br />available-for-sale financial assets<br />IFRS, SAPTerm, GoogleDefine<br />1. term analysis using:<br />domain TM (IFRS), Linked Open Data (DBPedia),<br />Translation services (GoogleTranslate)<br />[available-for-sale] [financial] [assets]<br />2. translate subterms using:<br />[beskikbaarvirverkoop] [finansiële] [bates]<br />3. term synthesis using:<br />grammars (rules, statistical models)<br />finansiële bates beskikbaar vir verkoop<br />
  15. 15. Application in Machine Translation<br />in Spanish<br />available-for-sale financial assets<br />IFRS, SAPTerm, GoogleDefine<br />1. term analysis using:<br />domain TM (IFRS), Linked Open Data (DBPedia),<br />Translation services (GoogleTranslate)<br />[available-for-sale] [financial] [assets]<br />2. translate subterms using:<br />[disponiblespara la venta] [financia] [activos]<br />3. term synthesis using:<br />grammars (rules, statistical models)<br />activos financieros disponibles para la venta<br />
  16. 16. Outline<br />1. Research challenge and motivation<br />2. Ontology Translation<br />3. Lexicalization (lemon)<br />4. CLOBIE (CL Ontology-based Inf. Extraction)<br />
  17. 17. Why do we need a lexicon?<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finance_lease<br />“loads of unlinked domain-specific<br />terminology on the web !”<br />An interoperable web for … ?<br />re-use<br />enable multilinguality<br />cross-lingual search<br />cross-lingual fact extraction<br />http://www.investopedia.com/terms/l/lease-payments.asp<br />
  18. 18. Lexicon standards overview<br />ISO (XML)<br />TEI (Text Encoding Initiative)<br />LMF (Lexical Markup Framework)<br />W3C & Semantic Web (RDF / OWL)<br />build-in rdfs:label<br />lightweight linguistic representations (SKOS, SKOS-XL)<br />rich linguistic representations (GOLD, LexInfo)<br />
  19. 19. SKOS – Multilingual Information<br />SKOS concepts with…<br />germ relations<br />multilingual labels<br />resource references<br />skos:related<br />ifrs:Minimum<br />FinanceLease<br />Payments<br />dbpedia:<br />Finance_lease<br />dbpedia:Lease<br />_payments<br />skos:narrower<br />skos:broader<br />skos:related<br />
  20. 20. SKOS – Multilingual Information<br />Not much uptake yet? from http://data.nytimes.com/<br />
  21. 21. Ontology-Text Mismatch<br />‘Edificio-historico’ vs. ‘…edificio, declarado Monumento Histórico…’<br />>> goes beyond SKOS (monolingual & multilingual term variants)<br />>> requires representation of lexical information to compute linguistic variants, e.g. <br />‘edificio historico[apposVP[NP[Adj]]]’<br />
  22. 22. A Lexicon Model for Ontologies<br />Requirements for ‘ontology-lexicon’ model<br />Represent linguistic information relative to ontology<br />Avoid unnecessary ambiguities by representing only lexical features relevant to semantics of underlying application<br />Keep semantics separate from linguistic info<br />Separate clearly ‘world’ (properties of objects referred to by words) from ‘word’ (properties of words) knowledge<br />Modular, minimal design<br />Provide simple core model that can be easily extended upon need<br />
  23. 23. Was there a solution already? - SKOS<br />Simple Knowledge Organization System – SKOS<br />General model for formalizing thesauri, terminologies and related semantic and knowledge resources<br />Formalization of terminology in focus - terminology, classification, Semantic Web communities<br />Does not address linguistic aspects of terminology, or therefore, the lexicon-ontology interface<br />http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/<br />
  24. 24. Was there a solution already? - GOLD<br />General Ontology for Linguistic Description – GOLD<br />Community-based ontology of linguistics<br />Linguistic study in focus - linguistics community<br />Formal model of linguistics as an ontology, but not about connecting lexical features to ontological semantics<br />Other issues: very big, modularity?<br />http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold/2010<br />
  25. 25. Was there a solution already? - OWN<br />OntoWordNet – OWN<br />Formal specification of WordNet through extension and axiomatization of its conceptual relations<br />Formal knowledge representation in focus - logic, knowledge representation, Semantic Web communities<br />Turns WordNet into an ontology but not about connecting lexical features to ontological semantics<br />http://wiki.loa-cnr.it/index.php/LoaWiki:OWN<br />
  26. 26. Was there a solution already? - LMF<br />Lexical Markup Framework – LMF<br />General model for formalizing and sharing of machine-readable dictionaries<br />Lexical knowledge representation in focus - lexicography, NLP communities<br />Very close to ontology-lexicon requirements, but no view on how lexical features link to ontological semantics – semantics is limited to a notion of sense based on synsets<br />Other issues: incomplete formal model, focus on classes, less on properties/relations <br />http://www.lexicalmarkupframework.org/<br />
  27. 27. lemon<br />lexicon model for ontologies: ‘lemon’<br />General model for formalizing lexical features relative to independently defined ontological semantics<br />http://www.monnet-project.eu/lemon<br />Two-level modelling<br />Abstract level (meta-model): lemon<br />Instantiation level (lexicon model): e.g. ‘LexInfo2’<br />http://lexinfo.net/<br />
  28. 28. Many solutions…<br />…with an a priori amount of linguistics or semantics!<br />
  29. 29. lemon: Overview<br />
  30. 30. lemon: Lexicon<br />Lexicon: wild animals<br />entry<br />entry<br />entry<br />LE: Kudu<br />LE: shaped like a Kudu<br />LexicalEntry can be a Word, Phrase, or Part - such as an Affix<br />
  31. 31. lemon: Form<br />wild animals<br />otherForm<br />abstractForm<br />canonicalForm<br />LE<br />F<br />LE<br />F<br />LE<br />F<br />“kudu”<br />“greater”<br />“great”<br />
  32. 32. lemon: Structure<br />?<br />LE: shaped like a Kudu<br />LE: shaped<br />LE: like<br />LE: a<br />LE: Kudu<br />LexicalEntry can be decomposed into one or more Components and compositional structure can be represented <br />
  33. 33. lemon: Structure - Example<br />:Component<br />:Component<br />:Component<br />:Component<br />lexeme<br />edge<br />edge<br />decomposition<br />:LexicalEntry<br />:node<br />:LexicalEntry<br />:node<br />:node<br />:LexicalEntry<br />:node<br />:node<br />:LexicalEntry<br />:node<br />:LexicalEntry<br />:node<br />shaped like a kudu<br />constituent:PP<br />shaped, lemma=“shape”<br />constituent:VP<br />constituent:VBN<br />like, lemma=“like”<br />constituent:NP<br />constituent:IN<br />a<br />constituent:DT<br />Kudu<br />constituent:NNP<br />element<br />leaf<br />edge<br />edge<br />element<br />leaf<br />edge<br />element<br />leaf<br />edge<br />element<br />leaf<br />
  34. 34. lemon: Meaning & Reference<br />LE: kudu<br />lexeme<br />sense<br />LS<br />sememe<br />reference<br />
  35. 35. lemon: Meaning & Reference<br />LE: kudu<br />sense<br />sense<br />LE: greater <br /> kudu<br />narrower<br />LS<br />LS<br />reference<br />reference<br />preSem<br />
  36. 36. lemon: Meaning & Reference<br />LE:greater<br />kudu<br />LE:lesser <br />kudu<br />sense<br />sense<br />lexical<br />incompatibility<br />LS<br />LS<br />incompatible<br />reference<br />reference<br />dbpedia:Kudu<br />
  37. 37. lemon: Meaning & Reference<br />LE: kudu<br />LE: goat<br />sense<br />sense<br />ontological<br />incompatibility<br />LS<br />LS<br />reference<br />reference<br />owl:disjointWith<br />
  38. 38. lemon: Lexical Projection<br />LexicalEntry can introduce a syntactic frame with arguments that are mapped to LexicalSense and indirectly to ontological semantic objects/properties<br />
  39. 39. Lexical projection (Verb Frame)<br />syntactic frame<br />S (<br /> NP VP(<br /> VB NP<br /> )<br /> )<br />…with semantic<br />sugar!<br />SAP AGsold long-term fixed rate conventional mortgage loans<br />
  40. 40. …more frames with LexInfo2<br />http://lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#DitransitiveFrame<br />ditransitive : Frame<br />subject : Argument<br />direct object : Argument<br />indirect object : Argument<br />verb: Frame<br />extends<br />synarg<br />synarg<br />synarg<br />SAP AGsoldCompany Xmortgage loans <br />
  41. 41. …more frames with LexInfo2<br />http://lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#DitransitiveFrame_To<br />ditransitive_to : Frame<br />subject : Argument<br />direct object : Argument<br />indirect object : Argument<br />ditransitive: Frame<br />extends<br />synarg<br />synarg<br />synarg<br />SAP AGsold mortgage loansto Company X<br />
  42. 42. Or Zulu morphology…<br />LE:angoma<br />sense<br />sense<br />class = lemon:MorphologicalPattern<br />LE:tolo<br />:zuluNC7_8 a lemon:MorphPattern ;   lemon:transform [       lemon:rule "isi(?=[^aeiou])~" ;      lemon:rule "is(?=[aeiou])~" ;      lemon:generates [ lexinfo:numberlexinfo:singular ]   ] , [      lemon:rule "izi(?=[^aeiou])~" ;      lemon:rule "iz(?=[aeiou])~" ;      lemon:generates [ lexinfo:numberlexinfo:plural ]  ] .<br />pattern<br />pattern<br />isitolo (shop)<br />izangoma (witch doctors)<br />
  43. 43. Lemon Editor and Generator<br />http://monnetproject.deri.ie/Lemon-Editor<br />“asset-backed-debts”<br />Finance Ontology<br />lemon lexicon<br />@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .<br />@prefix lemon: <http://www.monnet-project.eu/lemon#> .<br />@prefix financeV4: <http://fadyart.com/financeV4#> .<br />@prefix lexinfo: <http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#> .<br />@prefix pennbank: <http://www.monnet-project.eu/pennbank#> .<br />@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .<br />…<br /><file:test#assetbackeddebt> lemon:phraseRoot [ lemon:edge [ lemon:edge [ lemon:edge [ lemon:leaf _:n6 ] ;<br />lemon:constituentpennbank:NNP ] ;<br />lemon:constituentpennbank:NP ] ,<br /> [ lemon:edge [ lemon:edge [ lemon:leaf _:n88 ] ;<br />lemon:constituentpennbank:VBD ] ,<br /> [ lemon:edge [ lemon:edge [ lemon:leaf _:n69 ] ;<br />lemon:constituentpennbank:NN ] ;<br />lemon:constituentpennbank:NP ] ;<br />lemon:constituentpennbank:VP ] ;<br />lemon:constituentpennbank:S ] ;<br />lemon:decomposition ( _:n6<br /> _:n88<br /> _:n69<br /> ) ;<br />lemon:sense [ lemon:reference financeV4:AssetBackedDebt ] ;<br />lemon:canonicalForm [ lemon:writtenRep "Asset backed debt"@en ] .<br />…<br />lemon Lexical Entries<br /><file:test#back> lexinfo:partOfSpeechlexinfo:verb ;<br />lemon:canonicalForm [ lexinfo:tenselexinfo:past ;<br />lexinfo:verbFormMoodlexinfo:indicative ;<br />lemon:writtenRep "backed"@en ;<br />lexinfo:aspectlexinfo:perfective ] .<br />_:n88 rdf:typelemon:Component ;<br />lexinfo:tenselexinfo:past ;<br />lemon:element <file:test#back> ;<br />lexinfo:verbFormMoodlexinfo:indicative ;<br />lexinfo:aspectlexinfo:perfective .<br />
  44. 44. Outline<br />1. Research challenge and motivation<br />2. Ontology Translation & Inform. Extraction<br />3. Lexicalization (lemon)<br />4. CLOBIE (Cross-lingual Ontology-based Information Extraction)<br />
  45. 45. What is CLOBIE<br />Information Extraction<br />Monolingual<br />No semantics<br />Cross-lingual Information Extraction<br />Multilingual<br />Ontology-based Information Extraction<br />Semantics in the background<br />
  46. 46. What is CLOBIE<br />Information extraction(monolingual)<br />Information extraction (multilingual)<br />Information extraction with semantics<br />“SAP sold risk securities at a value of 12b EUR.” <br />PATTERN: .*SAP.*[sells|sold|issues].*[risk securities].*[0-9]+b [EUR|USD].*<br />PATTERN_DE: .*SAP.*verkaufte*.*[RisikoWertpapiere].*[0-9]+b [EUR|USD].*<br />.*[COMPANY] sell [ASSETS] .*<br />PATTERN: .*$COMPANY .*[sells|sold|issues].*$ASSETS.*$MONETARY_VALUE.}<br />financial assets<br />non-financial assets<br />risk securities<br />Property, Plant & Equipment<br />
  47. 47. Application in Information Extraction (IE)<br />:MinimumFinanceLeasePaymentsReceivable<br /> rdfs:subClassOf xbrli:monetaryItemType ;<br /> rdfs:label “Minimum finance lease payments receivable”@en .<br />semantically lifted<br />Minimum finance lease payments receivable<br />term analysis<br />receivables<br />payments received<br />linguistic analysis<br />Tesco’s Annual Report 2009<br />Tesco’s Annual Report 2009<br />Tesco’s Annual Report 2009<br />Tesco’s Annual Report 2009<br />SAP Annual Report 2008<br />SAP Annual Report 2008<br />SAP Annual Report 2008<br />SAP Annual Report 2008<br />…The fair value of the Group’s<br />finance leasereceivablesat<br />23 February 2008 was £5m…<br />..As at December 31, 2008,<br />the future minimumlease<br />payments expected to be<br />received was €16million…<br />…The fair value of the Group’s<br />finance leasereceivablesat<br />23 February 2008 was £5m…<br />..As at December 31, 2008,<br />the future minimumlease<br />paymentsexpected to be<br />received was €16million…<br />…The fair value of the Group’s<br />finance lease receivables at<br />23 February 2008 was £5m…<br />..As at December 31, 2008,<br />the future minimum lease<br />payments expected to be<br />received was €16million…<br />…The fair value of the Group’s<br />finance lease receivables at<br />23 February 2008 was £5m…<br />..As at December 31, 2008,<br />the future minimum lease<br />payments expected to be<br />received was €16million…<br />
  48. 48. CLOBIE Interdisciplinary<br />Statistical MT<br />Rule-based MT<br />Localization<br />Term extraction<br />Relation extraction<br />Extract. grammars<br />Machine<br />Translation<br />Information<br />Extraction<br />NLP<br />Corpus query<br />Term analysis<br />POS tagging<br />Morph analysis<br />Information<br />Retrieval<br />CLOBIE<br />Semantic<br />Web<br />TF-IDF<br />Web query<br />ranking algorithms<br />CLIR (ESA, MT-based)<br />Ontologies<br />SKOS, lemon<br />SPARQL queries<br />
  49. 49. Why CLOBIE?<br />Many unstructured resources (News, FinReps)<br />Knowledge in SW is often:<br />Not dynamic (no regular, only manual updates)<br />Knowledge across languages/countries not integrated<br />
  50. 50. CLOBIE blackboard architecture<br />CLOBIE Search<br />read<br />token_id /<br />POS<br />token_id /<br />token_id<br />sent_id/<br />term<br />sent_id/<br />concept<br />Blackboard<br />…<br />read / <br />contribute<br />read / <br />contribute<br />read / <br />contribute<br />read / <br />contribute<br />Annotators<br />Basic NLP<br /><ul><li> Splitter
  51. 51. Tok. / POS</li></ul>Linguistic Analyzer<br /><ul><li> Morphology
  52. 52. Dependency Parser</li></ul>Term Analyzer<br />Semantic Analyzer<br /><ul><li> Terminology DB</li></ul>Semantic / Terminological / Linguistic Enrichment Process<br />
  53. 53. CLOBIE Data set (Wind Energy)<br />10 companies in Wind Energy domain<br />Financial reports in<br />German / Spanish / English / Dutch<br />IFRS / DE-GAAP<br />Semantics defined by<br />IFRS vocabulary<br />xEBR vocabulary<br />
  54. 54. Next steps…<br />Benchmark development and evaluation on the basis of a data set in finance domain<br />financial reports and news from different companies in wind energy domain<br />multilingual (German, Dutch, Spanish, English)<br />multi-vocabulary (IFRS, European local GAAPs, DBPedia)<br />Cross-lingual ontology-based information retrieval system<br />Generate ontology-based information extraction grammars from lemon ontology-lexicons<br />

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