SDCs strategies in fragile and conflictaffected situations1. Context2. Definitions3. New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States4. SDC fragility evaluation5. SDCs policies6. ImplementationFederal Department of Foreign Affairs FDFASwiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDCNetwork Conflict and Human RightsSDC F2f e+i, Thun, 13th May 2013 SDC - Focal Point Conflict and Human Rights
21. Context:Fragile and Conflict Affected Situations FCS 1.5 billion people live in fragile and conflict-affected situations, in about 45 countries No low-income or conflict-affected countryhas yet achieved MDG. Poverty rates are inaverage 20% higher in countries whereviolence is protracted. Transiting out-of-fragility takes 20-40 years. 30% of ODA is spent in such contexts, butvery inequitably (country-wise/sector-wise).
32. DefinitionsOECD: Fragility: 3 key features for development:basic state functions; legitimacy; politicalprocesses OEDCD-DAC: „State fragility is defined as a lackof capacity to perform basic state functions,where “capacity” encompasses (a) organizational, institutional and financialcapacity to carry out basic functions ofgoverning a population and territory and (b) the state’s ability to develop mutuallyconstructive and reinforcing relations withsociety. (…)
4Definitions State capacity is achieved through: political processes of constructive state-society bargaining, which in turn requirelegitimacy; capacity and legitimacy can then becomemutually reinforcing, and contribute tostate building The dynamic can also be negative if a lackof capacity undermines legitimacy and viceversa, contributing to state fragility.” Don‘t forget: Global drivers of conflict andfragility
5A Basic Definition State’s missing ability to develop mutually construc-tive, reinforcing relations with society (legitimacy failure) There is a fragility spectrumA mixture of normative, state centreddefinitions of functions with peoplecentred perceptions and securityaspects: L a c k o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ,institutional and financialcapacity to carry out basicfunctions of protecting (authorityfailures) and governing (servicefailure) a population and territory;
3. The New Deal for Engagement inFragile States… from Paris to Busan7
a)Five Peace and Statebuilding Goals8 Foster inclusive political settementsand conflict resolution Establish and strengthen people’ssecurity. Address injustices and increasepeople’s access to justice. Generate employment and improvelivelihoods. Manage revenues and buildcapacity for accountable and fairservice delivery.
b)FOCUS - Engagement to supportcountry owned and led pathways out offragility Fragility assessments: Features of fragility and sources ofresilience; fragility spectrum to be elaborated by the G7+. One vision, one plan: Country led and country owned inconsultation with civil society. Setting priorities. Compact: A country level between national & internationalstakeholders: ensure harmonization, coordination andalignment. Use PSGs to monitor progress. Support political dialogue and leadership: Build capacity ingovernment and civil society to lead peace and statebuildingefforts.9
c)TRUST - Commitments for Results Transparency: Transparent use of domestic resources andaid (ODA and non-ODA) allocated against the PSGs. Risk-sharing: Risk of non-engagement can outweigh risks ofengagement. Joint risk assessment and management. Use and strengthen country systems: Jointly identify oversightand accountability mechanisms. Strengthen capacities: increase % of funding for nationalcapacity building (through pooled funding and facilitate south-south exchanges). Timely and predictable aid: simplified emergency or fast trackfinancial management and procurement; new modalities.10
Who signed up? Afghanistan Australia Austria Belgium Burundi Canada Central African Republic Chad Democratic Republic of Congo Denmark Finland France Germany Guinea Bissau Guinea Haiti Ireland Japan Liberia Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia South Sudan Spain* Sweden Switzerland Timor-Leste Togo United Kingdom United States African Development Bank Asian Development Bank European Union Organisation for Economic Co-operationand Development UN Development Group World Bank11Signatories to the New Deal
a)Five Peace and Statebuilding Goals12 Foster inclusive political settementsand conflict resolution Establish and strengthen people’ssecurity. Address injustices and increasepeople’s access to justice. Generate employment and improvelivelihoods. Manage revenues and buildcapacity for accountable and fairservice delivery.
PSG 4 and 5 - Indicators Indicators for PSG 4 (interim list, April 2013, ID) 1.Productive resources and prospects for growth -Population with access to useable and serviceable transportnetworks, communication, water and energy (in% of population) -Income inequalities among regions 2. Employment and Livelihoods -%of labour force under- and unemployed Theory of change : unemployment and underemployment,particularly among youth, can be a key factor for conflict,especially where there are significant employment differentialsamong social groups -change of foold prices over last 3 months 3.Natural resource management -Existence and enforcement of regulatory framework for NRM -Perception of fair use of benefits from natural resources13
PSG 4 and 5 - Indicators Indicators for PSG 5 1.Revenue Management -Ability of he state to monopolise tax and customs collection … -Ability of the state to generate official tax payments as asource of development finance and service delivery 2.Public administration -Quality of public financial management and internal oversightmeachanisms -% of population that reports paying a bribe when obtaining apublic service or when interacting with a public official 3. Service delivery Wether key basic services are distributed equitably betweenregions and social groups Public satisfaction with standard, performance and frianess ofbasic social delivery services14
PSG 4 and 5 Indicators SDC had advocated for PSG 4 Economic Foundations: % of increase of social inclusiveemployment and other income generation opportunities asmeans for sustaining livelihoods; PSG 5 Revenue and Services: % of increased state functions,covered by governmental ability to raise, priorities and manageown financial resources; 15
International Finance Corporation, WB Group:Ease of Doing business ranking in the g7+18 92. Solomon Islands 104. Papua New Guinea 140. Sierra Leone 149. Liberia 169. Timor-Leste 174. Haiti 177. Cote d’Ivoire 178. Guinea 156. Togo 158. Comoros 159. Burundi 168. Afghanistan 179. Guinea-Bissau 181. Congo, Dem. Rep. 184. Chad 185. Central African republic
International Finance Corporation, WB Group:Ease of Doing business ranking in the g7+19 A hypothetical “best of the g7+” country - based on asynthetic ranking of the best score among the g7+economies (for each of the 31 subindicators) - would beranked 10 globally, 82 places higher than the top-ranked g7+ economy (the Solomon Islands, at 92), and150 places above the current g7+ average (160) In this hypothetical g7+ economy: Starting a business would take just 6 days as it does inLiberia Registering the transfer of a property for commercialuse would cost 3.3% of the property value just as inBurundi Exporting would require 6 documents as in Timor-Leste And legal framework for secured transactions would besimilar to that of the Solomon Islands
SDC fragility evaluation 2011/2012:Recommendations Directorate to develop clear and coherent vision Concentrate and focus: comparative advantage, credibleresource levels, innovative approaches Start with context analysis and put in place coherent strategyof how to achieve transformational change Heads of Divisions to ensure that CS in FS focus on outcomesthat address causes of fragility, address state- and peace-building objectives, including human rights Align with priorities of G7+ / New Deal, use their tools (indicators) Develop a better mixture of modalities and instruments anduse CSPM Establish truly joint strategies with shared goals and outcomes Put in place new staffing policy for fragile states Address security management: clarify roles andresponsibilities Communicate rationale for engagement and risks in FS20
4. SDC Policies – Message 13-16 To work more in fragile situations – to stay engaged Impact goal 1 (humanitarian aid and reconstruction)Relevantcontribution to reduction of human suffering and theprotection of civilians) Impact Goal 5 (poverty reduction) : “SDC makes until 2016relevant contributions to the improvement of life conditions,the reduction of causes of conflicts and the improvement ofcrisis resistance in fragile contexts, so that the concernedcountries can better overcome crisis. Impact Goal 8 (support to transition): „SDC and secosupport sustainable transition to democratic and marketsystems [...] In the CIS countries Switzerland, contributes tothe stabilisation of fragile contexts, to the solution of conflictsand to the building up of the institutions. 21
4. SDC – Change and Implementationplan 2013-2016 (board of directors, 2012)1. Country strategy and programmingCountry strategies in fragile states include clear outcomes that addressthe causes of fragility and conflict, and they address state buildingand peace building objectives (5 PSGs). Conflict Sensitive Program Management is inbuilt. Conflict analyis / Hypothesis of change – „vision/scenarios Riskassessment / Risk management Strategic outcome CSPM in result framework2. Working togetherThe Swiss government as a whole to establish genuine joint strategiesin-country with shared goals and outcomes (“whole ofgovernment”) SDC increases its strategic engagement with other donors and themultilateral system, and to Swiss civil society. Development/ implementation of shared cooperation strategies infragile and conflict-affected states is done with an assigned lead.22
3. Human ResourcesSDCs staffing rules and conditions allow for SDC to haveenough and available competent staff (local and expat) atany time for assignments in fragile contexts. Objective: well trained staff are available in sufficentnumbers Outcomes: better preparation and support; human resourcemarketing, support in non-family and non-children dutystations4. Security, safetyNew security guidelines approved; roles and responsibi-litieson security across the FDFA, in country contexts, clarified.5. CommunicationSDC communicates the rationale and goals for engaging infragile states how we work with internal and externalstakeholders, including with successes and problems 23
5. Implementation Conflict analysis /fragility analysis/Sharesd Analysis Social and political analysis Conflict dynamics - drivers of conflict Fragility assessment COOF + Division + (HSD, seco, VBS) + localexperts + (like minded) other donors With consultant Include existing conflict analysis Root causes of conflict and core issues (effects ofroot causes) to be analyzed. This includes socialand political conflict. Joint and/or country ledFragility assessments to be used. 25
5. Implementation Hypothesis of change Key question : How do we address fragility andconflict How can development interventions contribute to areduction of conflict and fragility? To peace andstate building goals? How should social conflicts and political conflicts beaddressed? How can Switzerland contribute to this? Vision of how the country could / should develop resocial/politcal dynamics Not (primarily) related to sectors/themes Relation to „One plan“ / „Compact“ 26
5. Implementation Scenario building A most likely, a worst and a best scenario to beidentified. Annually: validate working scenario. Update localsecurity plan Adaptation to scenarios: What does it mean to workunder different scenarios in terms of results to beachieved, portfolio mix and approaches/modalities? Projection of analysis into the future Prepardness Link to operational consequences27
5. Implementation MERV The objective of a MERV (Monitoring System forDevelopment-Relevant Changes) context analysis isto regularly and systematically register the mediumand long-term changes and trends in relevant fieldsof observations like politics, the economy, socialaffairs, security issues, the environment, and culture so that the changes and trends thus observed canbe analyzed and allow for an early assessment tobe made of the possible influence these changesand trends might exert on the programmesconducted by the organization and its partners in thefield. and measures can be taken to adapt operations Half yearly or quarterly (if more difficult situation) With the whole team of COOF! 28
5. Implementation Portfolio mix in view of achievement of strategic outcomes andrisk mitigation What is the adequate portfolio mix e.g. in terms ofregional presence in the country or modalities ofintervention or results to be perceived on populationand on organizational level?29
5. Implementation Risk management The acceptance approach is based upondeveloping relationships with all stakeholders andgaining consent for programmes and operations asmeans of minimising or removing threats.Acceptance can be fostered - through the qualityassurance of work, community involvement(community contributions to your project, communitymobilisation, etc.), accountability, transparency andinclusion regarding groups and layers of society.30
6. Now comes the sector What do other donors do (mapping) Definition of themes and domains of intervention Result Framework (for most likely scenario) Including with an outcome (implementation modalityoutcome) on fragility / CSPM (e.g. how to contributeto New Deal implementation…, )31
6. CSPM Some more elements of Conflict SensitiveProgram Management CSPM Communication Work force diversity Geographical clustering Choice of partners32
Take home messages33• There is a problem. Some 45 countriesparticularly affected. Fragility and violence-conflict dimensions as main obstacles fordevelopment. -„Fragility“ spectrum.• There is a plan: Approaches and tools toenable SDC to stay engaged in difficultsituations: SDC fragility implementation plan13-16. In line with international community(New Deal)• Employment and Income programs veryimportant to help prevent and overcomefragility.
Take home messages34• Swiss country strategies must build upon acomprehensive context analysisaddressing the political and socialdimensions of fragility. Root causes andcore issues. They must include civil societyactors and private sector• „Do no harm“ and Conflict SensitiveProgram Management CSPM. HumanRights and Gender