Domain Name Basics - DNS, Domains and ICANN

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DNS, Domains and ICANN a short introduction. Meant to be an overview and training material for newcomers. This presentation is not intended to be exhaustive.

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Domain Name Basics - DNS, Domains and ICANN

  1. 1. Domain Name Basics DNS, Domains and ICANN a short introduction for newcomers
  2. 2. Domain Name System (DNS)  DNS is a hierarchical distributed naming system to translate domain names to IP addresses, which makes websites easier to remember, such as  united-domains.de instead of 89.31.137.101  The domain name space is a tree and its root is a „dot“.  www.united-domains.de. uk com de united-domains ... www ... . 2 | Tobias Sattler, CIO www.united-domains.de
  3. 3. Root Name Server  To resolve domain names root name servers are needed.  The root server zone file contains all top-level domains (.de, .com, .net) and the according IP addresses of their authoritative name server.  There are 13 root name servers and they are available via IPv4 and IPv6.  These servers are load balanced across multiple computing resources; therefore there are actually more than hundreds of servers world wide, minimizing response time and server overload. Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Root-current.svg - Effective 03/2016 3 | Tobias Sattler, CIO www.united-domains.de
  4. 4. What is a domain name?  It is an unique string within the domain name system (DNS).  The point at the end of a domain name will be ignored by most programs, like browsers and email clients, but it is actually there. Subdomain Domain Top-Level Root www. united-domains. de . 4 | Tobias Sattler, CIO www.united-domains.de
  5. 5. What is a top-level domain?  It is the name of the top tier and it is divided in two groups:  Generic TLDs (gTLDs) like .com, .net and .org  Country Code TLDs (ccTLDs) like .de, .io, .uk and many more.  Actually there are more than 1,000 gTLDs, e.g.: .aero, .asia, .berlin, .bike, .biz, .cat, .club, .com, .coop, .edu, .gov, .guru, .info, .int, .jobs, .mil, .mobi, .museum, .name, .net, .ngo, .nyc, .org, .post, .pro, .tel, .travel, .xyz, .xxx  There are over 200 ccTLDs, e.g.: .au, .br, .ca, .cn, .co, .de, .eu, .fr, .hk, .it, .io, .me, .nl, .ru, .tk, .uk, .us, .za 5 | Tobias Sattler, CIO www.united-domains.de
  6. 6. Who is maintaining the DNS?  The DNS is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).  TLDs are maintained by Registries.  Domain names are usually maintained by Registrars, such as GoDaddy, 1&1 Internet, united-domains, etc. 6 | Tobias Sattler, CIO www.united-domains.de
  7. 7. Who are IANA and ICANN?  Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a department of Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).  IANA is broadly responsible for the allocation of globally unique names and numbers used in Internet protocols that are published as Request for Comments (RFC) documents.  ICANN oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and numbers.  ICANN is a nonprofit private organization and was incorporated 1998  ICANN's primary principles of operation have been described as helping preserve the operational stability of the Internet. 7 | Tobias Sattler, CIO www.united-domains.de
  8. 8. What is ICANN exactly doing?  ICANN‘s primary role is to coordinate the allocation of IP addresses and TLDs.  ICANN is developing policies for gTLD domain names and revises these policies from time to time.  Policies’ development and reviews are always done within working groups. These working groups are composed of staff from any affected and/or interested party.  Policies have to go through public comment. Everyone is allowed to comment. 8 | Tobias Sattler, CIO www.united-domains.de
  9. 9. How is ICANN organized?  ICANN has multiple bodies and their duties are defined in the bylaws.  This list is not exhaustive, but the important bodies besides the Board of Directors are the Address Supporting Organization (ASO), Country Code Names Supporting Organization (ccNSO), Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO), Advisory Committees (AC) and Nominating Committee.  gTLD Registries and Registrars are part of the GNSO and have direct contracts with ICANN. 9 | Tobias Sattler, CIO www.united-domains.de
  10. 10. Address Support Organization  Represents the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs), which are responsible for allocation of IP address blocks.  IP addresses are necessary for all Internet communications.  There are 5 RIRs:  Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC)  American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)  Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC)  Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry (LACNIC)  African Network Information Centre (AfriNIC) Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Regional_Internet_Registries_world_map.svg - Effective 03/2016 10 | Tobias Sattler, CIO www.united-domains.de
  11. 11. Country Code Names Supporting Organization  The Country Code Names Supporting Organization (ccNSO) is a body within the ICANN structure created for and by ccTLD managers.  It has about 150 members representing the country code top level domains (ccTLDs), such as Nominet (.uk), DENIC (.de), SGNIC (.sg), etc.  Supplying and providing a platform for technical cooperation and a forum for ccTLD related problems and issues.  Advising the ICANN Board on global policies related to ccTLD issues.  Policy development through the ccNSO Council. 11 | Tobias Sattler, CIO www.united-domains.de
  12. 12. Generic Names Supporting Organization  Develops policies and recommendations for all gTLDs.  The GNSO consists of 4 stakeholder groups:  Commercial Stakeholder Group (CSG)  Non-Commercial Stakeholder Group (NCSG)  Registry Stakeholder Group (RySG)  Registrar Stakeholder Group (RrSG) Source: http://gnso.icann.org/en/about/gnso-council.htm - Effective 03/2016 12 | Tobias Sattler, CIO www.united-domains.de
  13. 13. Advisory Committees  There are 4 essential committees:  Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC)  At-Large Advisory Committee (ALAC)  Security and Stability Advisory Committee (SSAC)  Root Server System Advisory Committee (RSSAC)  GAC membership consists of national governments and, usually in an observer capacity, multinational governmental and treaty organizations and public authorities (including all the UN agencies with a direct interest in global Internet governance such as the ITU, UNESCO and WIPO). There are more than 160 members organized within the GAC.  ALAC is the primary organizational home within ICANN for individual Internet users. There are over 190 members, such as Wikimedia and ISOC.  SSAC and RSSAC are providing recommendations about security and technical risks. 13 | Tobias Sattler, CIO www.united-domains.de
  14. 14. Thank you! Please get in touch if you have any further questions: https://tobiassattler.com tobiassattler 14 | Tobias Sattler, CIO www.united-domains.de

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