Presented by Tommy Nguyen PAD 747 2 December 2012
High-speed Internet that allows users to use the Internet at a higher speed than dial-up Speeds can range from 200 kilobits per second (kbps) to 100 megabits per second (Mbps) Sound, images, and text are delivered as “bits” of data
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)-transmits data faster over copper telephone lines Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)- used in residential homes Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL)- used in businesses Cable Modem- provided through the cables that connect to your TV. (comparable to DSL or faster) Fiber Optic- sends data as light through glass fibers (faster than DSL and Cable)
Wireless or wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi)- short- range tech that is used in conjunction with DSL or a cable modem Mobile broadband Satellite- provides more coverage, but speeds are slower than DSL and cable
Percentage 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% May-96 Nov-96 May-97 Nov-97 May-98 Nov-98 May-99 Nov-99 May-00 Nov-00 May-01Month/Year Nov-01 May-02 Nov-02 v. Dialup May-03 Nov-03 May-04 Nov-04 Dialup Trends in Home Internet Access: Broadband Broadband at Home
The Alaska Federal Healthcare Access Network (AFHCAN) links at least 248 sites throughout the state. These sites include military sites, regional hospitals, and small village clinics. The 82-site Missouri Telehealth Network provides services in medical specialties such as radiology, cardiology, and mental health by using fiber optic broadband. As of today, 57,500 Teleradiology exams have been conducted. The ANGELS program sponsored by the University of Arkansas links physicians to pregnant women to 40 sites in rural communities to reduce the rate of low birth weight babies and better pre-natal care.
The United States spent nearly $2.6 trillion in 2010 Also, the US spends $7,960 per capita as of 2009 Health expenditures accounted for 17.9% of the nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2010
Total Expenditures on Health as a Percentage of GDP 18 16 14 12Percentage 10 8 6 4 2 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 Year
Reduce costs A study done by Penn State University estimated that remote health monitoring with the use of broadband cut costs from approximately $283,000 to about $87,000 per patient for one group of diabetes patients, a difference of $196,000 or 69% Reduce waste by digitalizing health records and eliminating the traditional method of record- keeping Connect rural communities to hospitals and caregivers Illinois is using DSL and cable to link medical education and training to 52 rural hospitals via videoconferencing, web streaming, and satellite broadcasts
1. Network security Sensitive information could end up in the wrong hands2. Transmission bandwidth There may not be enough bandwidth in some cases to video conference, or use two-way audio
The Recovery Act was passed on February 13, 2009 which invested $7 billion to expand broadband access nationwide that improved broadband connectivity in rural areas, and increased the Internet capability in libraries, hospitals, schools, and other community buildings National Broadband Plan (NBP) provide plans, goals, and suggestions for improving the access of broadband, affordability, and high- speed Internet performance.
1. Creating economic incentives for using broadband2. Congress, states, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services should reduce barriers that prevent the adoption of health information technology3. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) should standardize protocols for sharing clinical data and research4. FCC should establish funds to subsidize network operation to health care delivery areas where existing networks are deficient
Business challenges difficult to provide and increase access to broadband, while remaining cost-effective In 2010, the Massachusetts Broadband Institute provided $71 million in funding for constructing broadband infrastructure. However, a business model for telecommunications is missing to provide affordable broadband service to customers, particularly in rural areas where it is difficult to provide service to a low population area for an affordable price Economic challenges The idea and utilization of broadband in health is still relatively new and will remain experimental for some time, thus pilot programs that were mentioned previously will continue to be extra expenditures and will continue to add to the health budget
Government could reduce health care costs, and close the economic gap between the wealthy and those who are unable to afford it “electronic health records and remote monitoring technology could alone create over $700 billion in net savings over 15-25 years.” – (FCC, 2012) Improve the quality of care Health care can be more easily accessible for patients who live in communities that are far away from centers.