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Powerpoint on Matter

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  2. 2. <ul><li>Anything that has mass and occupies space </li></ul><ul><li>All matter is composed of atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Atom: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely small chemically indivisible particle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atom is Greek for “that which cannot be divided” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greek philosopher Democritus is given credit for idea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modern science can now divide an atom, so new definition includes chemically indivisible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An atom cannot be divided and retain it’s chemical properties </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Element : any substance that cannot be broken up into simpler substances by chemical means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>silver, copper, hydrogen, oxygen nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compound: a substance formed when atoms of two or more elements join together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 0 (water), CO 2 (carbon dioxide) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixture: a material of two or more substances that are not chemically bound to each other and can be separated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood: water-based mixture including </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins, sugars, salt, oxygen, carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Properties of matter are distinguishing characteristics of a substance that are used in its identification and description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical properties </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing substance into another substance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Odor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical state (liquid, gas, or solid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melting point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Characteristic of a substance that describes how substances react with other substances such as water, air or fire to form a new substance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Carbon Dioxide Water Carbohydrate or Sugar Oxygen Solar Energy + 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + chemical (heat) energy
  8. 8. <ul><li>Chemical changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involve formation of a new substance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical changes occur when a substance changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>color, size, shape, temperature or state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States of matter: solid, liquid, gas </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>SOLID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LIQUID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indefinite shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>definite volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GAS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indefinite shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indefinite volume </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fourth state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas that is so hot that it has ionized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The gas is electrically charged and is affected by magnetic and electric fields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sun’s corona </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Colloidal suspension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixture of two states completely dispersed in the other (i.e., solid in liquid) liquid that appear like solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e., milk, cheese, gelatin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of solid and liquid </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Melting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solid to liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freezing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>liquid to solid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaporation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>liquid to gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condensation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gas to liquid </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Can rocks melt? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, if it gets hot enough </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So, what determines states of matter? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& Pressure </li></ul></ul>