3 -needs_assessment___analysis_187


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3 -needs_assessment___analysis_187

  1. 1. NeedsAssessment & Analysis
  2. 2. Needs Assessment Process used to determine whether training is necessary Why needs assessment ?• Training maybe incorrectly used as a solution to a performance problem• Training programs may have the wrong content, objectives, or methods• Trainees maybe sent to training programs for which they do not have the basic or prerequisite skills• Training will not deliver the expected learning, behavior change or financial results that the company expects• Money wld be spent on unnecessary programs
  3. 3. Model of the Needs Assessment ProcessOrganizational Organizational Requirements Task & KSA Person Support Analysis Analysis Analysis Analysis Establish Define the Analyze tasks Specify Target job & KSA’s Develop Rel with Performance goals top mgmt Indicators Choose Develop methods tasks Establish Determine Determine Rel with Training Determine Form task KSA gaps inother orgnal climate participants clusters Target members population Determine Develop KSA’s Identify points of Form External & contact Determine Liaison Legal Determine Approach to team Constraints Anticipate Relevant KSAs Resolve gaps problems & tasks Develop a Link relevant protocol KSA’s to tasks
  4. 4. Causes & Outcomes of needs assessment What is the context In whatPressure Points do they need Outcomes Org TrainingLack of basic skills analysis Operation What trainees need to learnPoor performance Who receives training analysis New Technology Type of trainingCustomer requests Operator Frequency of training New Products analysis Buy Vs. Build training Higher standards Trg vs other HR options New jobs Who needs Training How trg shd be evaluated
  5. 5. Who initiates the Identification of training needs?• Managers – recognize needs due to dept performance results, individual performance appraisals, future plans, new equipments & systems• Employees – to improve current performance or to prepare for other jobs• Staff dept – from activities such as employee opinion surveys, exit interviews, succession planning, budget reports etc.• Training employees – Through training courses & performance surveys• External Consultants – As part of organizational study projects, performance assessments
  6. 6. Initiating the Identification of Training needs• A published procedure Requisition forms from anyone in the organization• An Annual survey Conducted by training department• Requirement that all appropriate activities like performance reviews, purchase of new equipment, employee opinion surveys include communication to the training function of any possible training needs
  7. 7. Who should participate in Needs Assessment?• Subject Matter Experts – Trainers, Technical experts, Managers, Employees, Academics – Who are knowledgeable in regard to • Training issues including tasks to be performed • KSA’s required for successful task performance • Necessary equipment • Condition under which tasks have to be performed• Job Incumbents
  8. 8. Key concerns• Upper Level Managers – Is training important to achieve our business objectives? – What business units need training?• Mid Level Managers – Do I want to spend money on trg? How much? – Who should be trained? Mgrs/Employees – For what jobs can training make the biggest difference in product quality or customer service?• Trainers – Do I have the budget to buy training services? Will managers support training? – How will I identify employees need training? – What tasks should be trained? What KSA’s or other characteristics are important
  9. 9. Training Needs• A gap between actual performance & desired performance or between current abilities & job requirements that can be closed by training• Categories of Training needs – Needs of the Organization – Needs of the Individual
  10. 10. Training needs of the Organization• Recognized Training needs Planned training needs, required by all – Need to know the organization, its structure, policies, procedures, benefits – Need to know a department, its rules, operating procedures & personnel – Need to have specific job skills & knowledge not generally known by employees• Requested Training needs Unplanned needs resulting from different activities – Changes in jobs/systems – Addition of new equipment – Department Performance reviews – New government requirements – Employee opinion surveys, organizational studies, dept meetings – Exit Interviews conducted with departing employees
  11. 11. Training needs of Individual employees• Initiated through activities such as – Performance Reviews – Selection Process – Testing & Assessment – Employee Career Objectives – Succession plans
  12. 12. Deciding what you need to know Elements the analysis should produce in its final report• Training Subjects• Importance of the Training• Urgency or time requirements• Current training population• Potential training population• Frequency of training• Subject review & update• Required results of the training• Content information sources
  13. 13. E PLSA M Training Needs Analysis Report Elements the analysis should produce in its final report• Training Subjects – How to operate the new product pricing system from a PC• Importance of the Training – Will reduce individual order pricing by 10% & increase order processing & invoicing speed by 30% for annual company savings of$250000• Urgency of the training – New system available for training by June 12, will go online by August 12. All order processing employees to be trained by August 12• Current training population – 47 order processors, 6 supervisors, 2 managers, 3 information systems technicians
  14. 14. E M PL Training Needs Analysis ReportSA• Potential training population – Based on turnover & projected sales, the following employees will be added each year for the next 5 years - 7 order processors, 1 supervisor, 1 manager, 1 information systems technician• Frequency of training – Small no of future trainees, so focus on initial group training course for current employees & a self study version for the later training• Subject review & update – To be surveyed annually. Changes to be communicated to training dept• Required results of the training – Order processors can price products via their PCs at a rate of 50 per hour, with no more than a 2% error rate• Content information sources – The company from which the system was purchased – Managers of the product pricing dept – Information processing technicians
  15. 15. Procedures for Identifying Training Needs Individual Procedures Group Procedures• Interviews • Meetings – Need to know process – Conferences – Job Analysis Grid – Focus Groups• Performance Reviews• Job Analysis Written Procedures• Task Analysis • Questionnaires• Job Sampling – Information gathering questionnaires – Behavioral questionnaires Other Procedures – Surveys• Experts – Online questionnaires• Combinations – Self- Reports • Tests & Assessments • 360 degree & peer reviews
  16. 16. Methods used inNeeds Assessment
  17. 17. Interviews• Knowing whom to interview• Planning the Interview• Designing the Questions• Scheduling the Interview• Notifying the Interviewee• Conducting the Interview• Conclude the Interview
  18. 18. Interviews Advantages Disadvantages• Good at uncovering • Time consuming details of training needs • Difficult to analyze as well as causes & • Needs skilled interviewer solutions of problems • Clients may feel self• Can explore conscious, suspicious unanticipated issues that • Difficult to schedule come up • Clients only provide• Questions can be information you want to modified hear
  19. 19. Job Analysis Grid Interviews• Method to eliminate the drawback of information contamination in traditional interviews• Outgrowth of a behavioral inquiry technique called the Repertoire Grid – a comprehensive approach for identifying specific human behaviors• Begins with a series of questions that do not appear to be related to the objective of the investigation• A less direct form of interview, requires more time and an interviewer trained in the technique• Suited more to determine basic needs, when the investigation is for a possible first time course.
  20. 20. Job Analysis Grid Interviews The Process• State the objective, but be less specific• Check for interviewee questions• Give a brief discussion of what will occur• Ask your questions• Note responses on index cards – one keyword per card• Shuffle the cards & select 3 at random – Show to employee & ask to select 2 of them which are more in common• Remove the least common. Ask what others have in common• Again note keywords• Reinsert the cards, reshuffle & repeat the process till there are no new responses• Conclude the Interview & combining results
  21. 21. E M PLSA A typical Job Analysis Grid Interview• Conducted with a supervisor to identify the management competencies required for a supervisor’s position• Questions & Answers Q- What did u discover during your first month as a supervisor that was a surprise to you? A -Need to know employment procedures (Employment procedures) - Some employees are not motivated (Motivation) - Must have a daily plan (Planning) Q - What are the three best features of being a supervisor? A – Compensation (Compensation) - Being in charge (Authority) - Being a part of management (Management)
  22. 22. E PLSA M A typical Job Analysis Grid Interview Q - What are the three things you would most like to change? A – Hours (Work Schedule) Pre supervisory Training (Training) Improve communications (Communications) Q – If supervisors are dissatisfied with their job, what is the most likely reason? A – Cannot control employees (Controlling) - No leadership (Leadership) Q - What would have helped you to know before starting work as a supervisor? A – Employee histories (Employee histories) - Payroll Procedures (Payroll Procedures) Q - What areas do you still not know? A – Disciplinary procedures (Disciplinary procedures) - Interviewing (Interviewing)
  23. 23. E PLSA M A typical Job Analysis Grid Interview • Three cards displayed – Controlling, Disciplinary procedures, Employment procedures • What they had in common - Controlling, Knowing Disciplinary procedures, Oral communication, One to one meeting • Concluding – What competencies are missing? – Group – Musts, Wants, Not necessary – Prioritize
  24. 24. The Need to Know Process• Based on discovering exactly what a person to be trained needs to know in order to meet the objectives of the training• When to use – When number of people to be trained – To teach a new subject as well as to make revisions to existing training – Can be used to design the training course & also conduct it• The person who conducts it should have full knowledge of the ultimate training course content or job for which training is provided• People to be interviewed must be representative of those to be trained & have varying levels of performance
  25. 25. The Need to Know Process The technique• Planning – Identify what the outcomes of the training are to be & then the specifics. Prepare the ‘final exam’ for the training course• Implementation – Participant brought into private area with equipment & materials required – Explain the process to trainee – Record questions by trainee – Provide information as required & make note of what is asked, what is provided – Conclusion – Ask for reactions
  26. 26. Key Consultation• With persons who are in a good position to know what the training needs of a particular group are Advantages Disadvantages• Simple & Inexpensive • Built in bias, since based on views of few who see it• Input of number of from their perspective individuals with his own • May result in partial picture perspectives of needs of training needs
  27. 27. Observation• Technical/ behavioral• Structured/unstructured Advantages Disadvantages• Generates data relevant • Needs Skilled observers to work • Employees behavior• Minimizes interruption of maybe affected by being work observed
  28. 28. Group Discussions• Structured/ Unstructured• Brainstorming, Force- fields, Organizational mirroring Advantages Disadvantages• Permits on the spot • Time consuming synthesis of different • Can produce data difficult viewpoints to synthesize & quantify• Shared function• Help participants become better problem analysts
  29. 29. Focus Groups Advantages Disadvantages• Useful with complex or • Time consuming to organize controversial issues that • Group members only one person maybe provide information they unable or unwilling to think you want to hear explore • Group members maybe• Questions can be reluctant to participate if status or position differences modified to explore exist among members unanticipated issues
  30. 30. Tests• Tests are standardized & objective measures of skills, knowledge & competencies• Measures differences between individuals & between individuals & some predetermined standard• Ensure that they – Measure what you need to measure – Are error free – Are valid within your environment & your population – Are administered & scored properly, with a common understanding of how to interpret results
  31. 31. Tests• Functionally oriented to test proficiency• Maybe used to sample learned ideas & facts Advantages Disadvantages• Helpful in determining • Limited number of whether cause of validated tests available problem is deficiency in skill, knowledge or attitude• Results are easily quantifiable & comparable
  32. 32. Assessments• Procedures designed to measure employee behaviors that can be the basis for determining training needs• It includes – Job Simulations – Psychological interviews – Assessment Centers – Self Testing Devices• High implementation costs & time
  33. 33. Questionnaires• Surveys/Polls, Question formats, Self administered Advantages Disadvantages• Inexpensive • Requires time • Possible low return rates,• Can collect data from a inappropriate response large number of persons • Lacks detail• Data easily summarized • Only provides information directly related to questions asked • Less flexible
  34. 34. Documentation (Technical manuals, records) Advantages Disadvantages• Good source of • Difficulty in understanding information on technical language procedure • Materials maybe obsolete• Good source of task information for new jobs
  35. 35. Print Media• Professional journals, trade magazines, in-house publications Advantages Disadvantages• Source of information for • Can be a problem when it uncovering normative comes to the data analysis needs & synthesis into a useable form• Provides current information• Readily available