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Best/Next Practices in Job Description Design and Management
About Don Berman
Professional Services Leader - HRTMS
 Since...
Best/Next Practices in Job
Description Design and
Management
presented by Don Berman
Why Job Descriptions Lag Behind
• People think of them as documents/paper
• No one person can complete them
– HR/Comp know...
About this presentation
• Although we provide recommendations -- Not an Ivory Tower
• Based on what our clients are doing
...
We see Job Descriptions differently
• Job Descriptions
– Cater to the lowest common denominator
– Consist of blocks of den...
Looking for a cookbook?
- Not One Size Fits all

- What’s in your Job Description depends on:
ADA/Accommodation

FLSA Dete...
The Agenda
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

General Guidelines
Legal Consideration
Job Description Elements– What/How/Why
Compet...
General Guidelines - Job
• It’s about the Job
– Everything in your JD must be about the Job
– Resist using JD to describe ...
General Guidelines - Language
• Clear
– Avoid flowery overwritten and vague verbiage:
• “…responsible for communicating an...
General Guidelines – Language (cont’d)
• Use language that points to desired results
• That indicates how success can be m...
Legal Considerations
• Don’t discriminate by:
Age
Race/Religion
Marital Status
Gender Specific

“…Youthful energy…”
“Must ...
Legal Considerations – cont’d
• Don’t violate Applicants Privacy
“…Ability to function without sleep…”
“…single able spend...
Legal Considerations – cont’d
• Protect against FLSA wage and hour lawsuit
In an article, Beware 'Misclassification Creep'...
Job Description Elements
• Job Attributes
– Job Indicative Information
– Organization Information

•
•
•
•
•
•

Descriptio...
Job Attributes
• Indicative Information Typical Elements
–
–
–
–
–
–

Job Code
Job Title
FLSA Classification
Grade
Date Cr...
Job Attributes
• Organizational Information –
–
–
–
–
–
–

Business Unit/Region/Division, etc.
Reports To
Locations
Depart...
Description/Summary

Overview of Job, used as a synopsis, for market pricing and
recruiting. Used as a hook to draw in the...
Description/Summary
Concerns for Description/Summary
• Blank Page Syndrome
• War and Peace Syndrome
Remedies
• Feedback/Re...
Definition of terms:
Essential Functions, Skills and Competencies
• You have competencies (measurable/acquired over time)
...
Essential Functions
• AKA Duties, Responsibilities, Accountabilities…
• Used for:
– Performance appraisal.
– ADA – Can an ...
Essential Functions
• Sample Guidelines
– What they do, not how they do it. If it’s less than 5-10%, should not
include un...
Essential Functions
• Information captured
– Description of Essential Function
– Also
•
•
•
•

Percent of Time
Frequency
L...
Essential Functions
Other options for Essential Functions
• Additional Responsibilities
– Used to generalize JDs
– Used to...
Qualifications
• Used for recruiting, career pathing and compliance
• Sample Guidelines:
– “We educate our managers that t...
Qualifications
• Most Common Information captured
–
–
–
–

Education
Experience
Skills
Licenses/Certifications
(Joint Comm...
Qualifications
Category

Item

Details/
Other

Required/
Preferred

Proficiency

Other

% Using

Education

Level

X

X

~...
Physical Demands/Working Conditions
Used for ADA situations to determine if an employee is capable
of performing in the jo...
Physical Demands/Working Conditions
Process for determining physical demands/working conditions
Items
• Industry specific
...
Physical Demands/Working Conditions
Category

% Using

Physical Demands

~ 100%

Working Conditions

~ 100%

Physical Dema...
Competencies
•
•
•
•
•
•

Measurable/score-able
Used for performance reviews
Most use in conjunction with Essential Functi...
Competencies
Category

% Using

Core Competencies

~20%

Departmental Competencies

~50%

Position Specific Competencies

...
Scope
• Generally, help gauge impact of the job on an organization
• More specifically
–
–
–
–
–

Job Evaluation
Grading
C...
Scope
Some examples are:
–
–
–
–

Freedom to Act
Problem Complexity
Impact
Supervision Exercised/
Received
– Financial Res...
Scope
• Job Evaluation - Factors used for leveling are dictated by the
leveling methodology various IPE(s), Hay or homegro...
Collaboration
• Collaboration is the key to effective job descriptions because the
knowledge needed is embedded in multipl...
Collaboration
• Collaboration must be flexible, allowing stake holders to reach out to
other contributors on the fly:
– Up...
Collaboration Best Practice – Stake holders
Keep it Simple
• Allow managers to make requests simply from their perspective...
Collaboration Best Practice - Oversight

Step 1 Reviewer(s)

Step 2 Reviewer(s)

HR/Compensation
Final Approval

© 2013 HR...
Content
• Sources of Content
–
–
–
–

Stakeholders
Client Job Descriptions
HRTMS Content Library
Client libraries/data fro...
Content-Search

• Search Content
–
–
–
–
–

By Job Description
By Job Family/Function
By Occupation
By Saved List
Standard...
Job Descriptions and Job Posting
• Low hanging fruit for integration
• Automate or cut and paste
• Attended/background int...
FLSA Questionnaires
• DOL Questionnaires
• State or other Questionnaires
Inheritance
Inherit Data from Parent Job Descriptions
• Typically Essential Function, Skills, Certifications, Competencies...
Inheritance - Uses

• Generic Jobs

– Nurses, Accountants, etc.

• Entity
– Department, Division, Business Unit, Location ...
Organizing Job Descriptions (View)
• Filter JDs By Entity/Other attributes
– Business Unit, Department, FLSA/EEO Classific...
Organizing Job Descriptions (Job Families)
• By Job Family/Function
• Career Paths
• Related Jobs

• Side-By-Side Views
– ...
Organizing Job Descriptions (Analysis)
• Best Practice – Matrix Explorer
Organizing Job Descriptions (Consolidating)
Relationship between Job Codes(HRMS) to Job Descriptions
• Many (Job Codes) to...
Similar Jobs/Identification
• Identify jobs that are similar enough to be candidates for
consolidation
Similar Jobs/Consolidation
• Consolidate Job Descriptions/Create Parent Job Descriptions
Access
• Provide access to:
– HR/Compensation
– Managers
– Employees

95%

40%

HR/Comp
5%

Only

Managers

Managers

Stak...
Keep a Record of Historical Job Descriptions
• Defend Hiring Decisions
• Protect yourself against Regulatory Audit
Wrap up
If you stop thinking of a Job Description as being limited by the
restrictions imposed by documents:
– You’ll see ...
What did we miss?
Questions
How To Contact Us
Don Berman
don@hrtms.com
Ashley Robinson
ashley@hrtms.com

919.351.JOBS (5627)
www.hrtms.com
Best/Next Practices in Job Description Design and Management-HRTMS Jobs
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Best/Next Practices in Job Description Design and Management-HRTMS Jobs

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Join us as Don Berman, an industry thought-leader in the area of Job Descriptions, shares state-of-the-art best and next practices to consider when creating and maintaining effective Job Descriptions.

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Best/Next Practices in Job Description Design and Management-HRTMS Jobs

  1. 1. Best/Next Practices in Job Description Design and Management About Don Berman Professional Services Leader - HRTMS  Since 1989, Don Berman has spearheaded the introduction and adoption HR and talent management applications and technology driven best practices at large and mid-sized companies throughout the U.S. As co-founder and Professional Services Lead, Don has helped guide HRTMS Talent Management solutions toward a new Job Description-centric model that resulted in HRTMS Jobs--the leader in Job Description Management.
  2. 2. Best/Next Practices in Job Description Design and Management presented by Don Berman
  3. 3. Why Job Descriptions Lag Behind • People think of them as documents/paper • No one person can complete them – HR/Comp knows how to write them – Managers/Stakeholders know the details of the job • People don’t know where to start – Especially for new Jobs – Lack of content • No Structured way to go about it – Different formats/focus • Everything else is more important – Recruiting, Performance Reviews, Compensation, Market Pricing Despite the fact that none of these can be done well without an effective Job Description • No Urgency (until you need to hire someone)
  4. 4. About this presentation • Although we provide recommendations -- Not an Ivory Tower • Based on what our clients are doing – – – – – Components they are using What they are using them for Samples/Guidelines Statistics Screenshots/document snippets for context
  5. 5. We see Job Descriptions differently • Job Descriptions – Cater to the lowest common denominator – Consist of blocks of dense, opaque text • Job Repository – Leverages conversations with Stakeholders • Collects all the info you need • Controls who can see what – Provides information to those that need it • Folks in other roles, hiring managers, recruiters, Compensation, OD • Other systems: ATS, Performance Management, HRMS – Turn blocks of text into Data Points • That you can search/query/interface with other systems • Change the way you think about Job Descriptions
  6. 6. Looking for a cookbook? - Not One Size Fits all - What’s in your Job Description depends on: ADA/Accommodation FLSA Determination Career Pathing Succession Compensation Plans Salary Structure Training Performance Management Corporate Culture System/Process ATS/Recruiting Process Job Description Future Plans
  7. 7. The Agenda • • • • • • • • • • • • • General Guidelines Legal Consideration Job Description Elements– What/How/Why Competencies, Skills, and Essential Functions Collaboration Content Job Descriptions and Job Posting FLSA Determination Reusable Components (Inheritance) Organizing Job Descriptions Similar JDs/Consolidation Access Historical Job Descriptions
  8. 8. General Guidelines - Job • It’s about the Job – Everything in your JD must be about the Job – Resist using JD to describe an individual or personality traits • Upbeat personality • Excellent customer services skills – For ADA Include only relevant necessary requirements • If the item is not absolutely necessary to do the job – Leave it out – Include it as a Non-Essential function – Future of the Job • Look forward to the what may be needed down the road
  9. 9. General Guidelines - Language • Clear – Avoid flowery overwritten and vague verbiage: • “…responsible for communicating any internal issues of importance to any of the constituencies involved in the company’s day-to-day happenstances, in formats including, but not limited to daily updates, weekly publications, annual reports.” Vague, Confusing, Does not describe what the person will actually do • “Handles internal communications regarding company decisions and accomplishments on an as needed basis” • Reasonable/Truthful – Avoid Hyperbole “On call 24/7” – Don’t Glamorize the JD
  10. 10. General Guidelines – Language (cont’d) • Use language that points to desired results • That indicates how success can be measured • Without exaggeration uses powerful/influential language – “Through the use of direct marketing, candidates must be able to build and measurably grow sales to a sustainable client base.”
  11. 11. Legal Considerations • Don’t discriminate by: Age Race/Religion Marital Status Gender Specific “…Youthful energy…” “Must be able to work on Yom Kippur” “Travel Requires unmarried…” “Previous experience as a waitress” • Don’t undermine at will employment “This is a permanent Position” “…prides itself on employee retention” Don’t Mention unless Temp Omit. Implies ongoing employment • Don’t make promises you can’t keep “…performance will be rewarded” “…will lead to training opportunities” “…supervises a staff of trained professionals”
  12. 12. Legal Considerations – cont’d • Don’t violate Applicants Privacy “…Ability to function without sleep…” “…single able spend full energy on the job” “…must have “blue state” mentality” “…candidate must not have other work commitments” • Don’t create FLSA Classification Problems – JDs are not required but essential function are usually central in any dispute “…Supervise 2 employees/can hire and fire” “Eligible for overtime pay” “This is an exempt position” “…Salaried position” “…Will supervise department” Omit. Don’t use these terms or Discuss this topic
  13. 13. Legal Considerations – cont’d • Protect against FLSA wage and hour lawsuit In an article, Beware 'Misclassification Creep' in Employee Exemption, Littler Mendelson shareholder and co-chair of the firm’s wage-and-hour practice group, Lee Schreter states, “It’s easy enough for companies to ask their employees to sign off on their job descriptions during their periodic performance reviews, so there is both mutual understanding and, for the employer, welldocumented proof that the employee knows where they stand. That kind of evidence, I believe even the courts will be hard-pressed to dismiss.” – Compliance - Job Description Acknowledgement • Healthcare (Joint Commission) • All Companies (FLSA) • Bio Tech (CFR Part 11),
  14. 14. Job Description Elements • Job Attributes – Job Indicative Information – Organization Information • • • • • • Description/Summary Essential Functions Qualifications Physical Demands/Working Conditions Competencies Scope
  15. 15. Job Attributes • Indicative Information Typical Elements – – – – – – Job Code Job Title FLSA Classification Grade Date Created/Revised Reviewed by
  16. 16. Job Attributes • Organizational Information – – – – – – – Business Unit/Region/Division, etc. Reports To Locations Departments Supervision Exercised/Received Managers/Employees
  17. 17. Description/Summary Overview of Job, used as a synopsis, for market pricing and recruiting. Used as a hook to draw in the reader. • Sample Guidelines – Short statement that states why the job exists – Short statement that describes the role and how it supports the company’s key objectives using specific measures of success – Elevator Pitch for the job
  18. 18. Description/Summary Concerns for Description/Summary • Blank Page Syndrome • War and Peace Syndrome Remedies • Feedback/Revision Process • Text Limits (75 words) • Spell Check • Leverage Content
  19. 19. Definition of terms: Essential Functions, Skills and Competencies • You have competencies (measurable/acquired over time) – Knowledge, behavior, characteristics, aptitudes and/or strengths that are needed to perform and excel. – e.g., Problem solving • That allow you to learn Skills (acquired quickly) – Something tangible you can know or learn – e.g., Event Planning • That you can apply to accomplish Essential Functions – Daily tasks that need to be performed. – e.g., Manages logistics for major corporate events. These include : “town hall” meetings and webcasts, investor relations…
  20. 20. Essential Functions • AKA Duties, Responsibilities, Accountabilities… • Used for: – Performance appraisal. – ADA – Can an employee with a disability perform these functions; if not, what accommodation can be made? – Recruiting/posting – Less so, for FLSA, Affirmative Action and Joint Commission
  21. 21. Essential Functions • Sample Guidelines – What they do, not how they do it. If it’s less than 5-10%, should not include unless it is a highly critical function – Statements that describe the main areas in which the role holder must produce results in order to achieve the purpose of the role. They start with a verb and describe the end results rather than duties or activities or broad, vague statements. These responsibilities should be limited to the six or seven most important ones and put in descending order of importance. – Begin each task statement with an action word (verb), which describes a specific kind of behavior. Then describe what, how and why each task is performed.
  22. 22. Essential Functions • Information captured – Description of Essential Function – Also • • • • Percent of Time Frequency Level Weight These can affect FLSA Determination
  23. 23. Essential Functions Other options for Essential Functions • Additional Responsibilities – Used to generalize JDs – Used to define responsibilities that may not be used for all employees in a job – e.g. Work Nights/weekends, perform a location/business unit specific task • Entity Specific Functions • Required Responsibilities – For All Jobs – Mission/Vision
  24. 24. Qualifications • Used for recruiting, career pathing and compliance • Sample Guidelines: – “We educate our managers that they need to determine the minimum and preferred education/certification, skills, and experience required for the job so that HR can legally defend why an applicant is or is not hired. ”
  25. 25. Qualifications • Most Common Information captured – – – – Education Experience Skills Licenses/Certifications (Joint Commission) • Also Captured – Technology/Software Skills – Languages
  26. 26. Qualifications Category Item Details/ Other Required/ Preferred Proficiency Other % Using Education Level X X ~ 100% Experience Level X X ~ 100% Skills Skill X X Lic/Cert Lic/Cert X X Technology Tech Skill X X X ~ 10% Languages Language X X X ~ 10% X ~ 90% Timeframe ~80%
  27. 27. Physical Demands/Working Conditions Used for ADA situations to determine if an employee is capable of performing in the job • • • In conjunction with Essential Functions Used to determine what accommodations can be made Most Common Information captured – Physical Demand/Working Condition Description – Frequency – Weight (for weight related items)
  28. 28. Physical Demands/Working Conditions Process for determining physical demands/working conditions Items • Industry specific – Corporate/Healthcare/Manufacturing • Often culled from disability claims over time • Reviewed periodically to evolve over time with changes in job equipment and ADA.
  29. 29. Physical Demands/Working Conditions Category % Using Physical Demands ~ 100% Working Conditions ~ 100% Physical Demands with weight requirements ~80% Coordination/Visual Acuity <10% Essential Physical Requirements <10% Bloodborne Pathogens <10% Cognitive Requirements <10% Emotional Effort <5%
  30. 30. Competencies • • • • • • Measurable/score-able Used for performance reviews Most use in conjunction with Essential Functions Corporate – Behavioral Healthcare - task related due to regulatory requirements Number Limited
  31. 31. Competencies Category % Using Core Competencies ~20% Departmental Competencies ~50% Position Specific Competencies ~60% Leadership Competencies ~40% Customer Service/others <10%
  32. 32. Scope • Generally, help gauge impact of the job on an organization • More specifically – – – – – Job Evaluation Grading Compensation Participation in bonus plan Aid in FLSA determination
  33. 33. Scope Some examples are: – – – – Freedom to Act Problem Complexity Impact Supervision Exercised/ Received – Financial Responsibility – Budget Responsibility
  34. 34. Scope • Job Evaluation - Factors used for leveling are dictated by the leveling methodology various IPE(s), Hay or homegrown Excel Point Factor System • Some examples are: – – – – – – Nature/Area of Impact Creativity Internal/External Contacts Project Management Business Expertise Leadership
  35. 35. Collaboration • Collaboration is the key to effective job descriptions because the knowledge needed is embedded in multiple Stakeholders. • Typical participants are: – Hiring Manager – HR Generalists – Compensation • Track changes paradigm
  36. 36. Collaboration • Collaboration must be flexible, allowing stake holders to reach out to other contributors on the fly: – Upper-level Managers – Department/Entity/Location Leaders – Other SME’s • Ad hoc Reviews Provide simplicity/flexibility
  37. 37. Collaboration Best Practice – Stake holders Keep it Simple • Allow managers to make requests simply from their perspective • Empower HR Business partners to route for further approval  Manager Selects Descriptions Mark-up Process © 2013 HRTMS, Inc. All Rights Reserved www.hrtms.com HR/HR Business Partner
  38. 38. Collaboration Best Practice - Oversight Step 1 Reviewer(s) Step 2 Reviewer(s) HR/Compensation Final Approval © 2013 HRTMS, Inc. All Rights Reserved www.hrtms.com Step 3 Reviewer(s)...
  39. 39. Content • Sources of Content – – – – Stakeholders Client Job Descriptions HRTMS Content Library Client libraries/data from other systems • Content Applied to – – – – – Summary Essential Function Competencies Skills Less often, Qualifications
  40. 40. Content-Search • Search Content – – – – – By Job Description By Job Family/Function By Occupation By Saved List Standard Statements
  41. 41. Job Descriptions and Job Posting • Low hanging fruit for integration • Automate or cut and paste • Attended/background integration
  42. 42. FLSA Questionnaires • DOL Questionnaires • State or other Questionnaires
  43. 43. Inheritance Inherit Data from Parent Job Descriptions • Typically Essential Function, Skills, Certifications, Competencies • But could be any Job Description Element Changes to Parent auto populate to children
  44. 44. Inheritance - Uses • Generic Jobs – Nurses, Accountants, etc. • Entity – Department, Division, Business Unit, Location etc. • Job Classification – Job Family/Function – Exempt/Non-Exempt, EEO – Arbitrary Classification
  45. 45. Organizing Job Descriptions (View) • Filter JDs By Entity/Other attributes – Business Unit, Department, FLSA/EEO Classification, Job with openings, etc.
  46. 46. Organizing Job Descriptions (Job Families) • By Job Family/Function • Career Paths • Related Jobs • Side-By-Side Views – Career Matrix – Qualifications Comparison – Scope Factor Analysis
  47. 47. Organizing Job Descriptions (Analysis) • Best Practice – Matrix Explorer
  48. 48. Organizing Job Descriptions (Consolidating) Relationship between Job Codes(HRMS) to Job Descriptions • Many (Job Codes) to one Job Description – Often Driven by concerns due to Legacy JD Management – Facilitated by entity specific Elements • One (Job Code) to One Job Description – Best Practice for Repository
  49. 49. Similar Jobs/Identification • Identify jobs that are similar enough to be candidates for consolidation
  50. 50. Similar Jobs/Consolidation • Consolidate Job Descriptions/Create Parent Job Descriptions
  51. 51. Access • Provide access to: – HR/Compensation – Managers – Employees 95% 40% HR/Comp 5% Only Managers Managers Stakeholders Stakeholders Employees Employees Employees
  52. 52. Keep a Record of Historical Job Descriptions • Defend Hiring Decisions • Protect yourself against Regulatory Audit
  53. 53. Wrap up If you stop thinking of a Job Description as being limited by the restrictions imposed by documents: – You’ll see that a Job Description Repository can: • Drive Performance, Compensation, Recruiting, Succession, and Training • Job Descriptions are the logical centerpiece of your Talent management Landscape Most of the content in this presentation was drawn from client implementations of HRMS Jobs Content for General Guidelines and Legal Consideration was drawn from The Job Description Handbook by Margie Mader-Clark
  54. 54. What did we miss?
  55. 55. Questions
  56. 56. How To Contact Us Don Berman don@hrtms.com Ashley Robinson ashley@hrtms.com 919.351.JOBS (5627) www.hrtms.com

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