Topic Maps, Dashboards and Sensemaking


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As we migrate from document-centric to subject-centric computing, we are discovering new approaches to the online facilitation of collective sensemaking. Our approach is to federate with a central topic map the many different tools of hypermedia discourse, such as social bookmarking, semantic annotation, and dialogue mapping. We are learning that this federation facility provides opportunities for unique uses of aggregated sensemaking. We report on our progress in the development of a dashboard facility as one such opportunity.

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Topic Maps, Dashboards and Sensemaking

  1. 1. Knowledge Gardening with CALO Jack Park SRI International, Menlo Park, California And Knowledge Media Institute, Open University, Milton Keynes, U.K . Topic Maps Research and Applications TMRA 2008 Leipzig, Germany 15-17 October, 2008
  2. 2. Image copyright Paul Bourke and Gayla Chandler, used with permission. Childhood’s End From: Document Centric To: Subject Centric Computing
  3. 3. Goals <ul><li>Move CALO discussion from Document-centric computing to Subject-centric computing </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce social computing to CALO </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Show benefits of collective sensemaking with CALO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Illustrate a Dashboard component for DocAssist </li></ul>
  4. 4. Agenda <ul><li>Background Ideas and Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Gardening Overview </li></ul><ul><li>CALO’s Knowledge Gardening Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Gardening with CALO </li></ul>
  5. 5. From Documents To Subjects CALO My Subjects
  6. 6. Subject-Centric Collaboration with CALO Groups of CALO Users share and evolve subjects they harvest CALO My Subjects CALO My Subjects CALO My Subjects CALO My Subjects CALO My Subjects Knowledge Garden Our Subjects
  7. 7. Background: Documents <ul><li>Are organized in a linear topology </li></ul><ul><li>Are Unstructured </li></ul><ul><li>Contain references to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are harvested by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding subjects within that structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federating with subjects found in other documents </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Background: Subjects <ul><li>Are defined as anything you want to think or talk about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include concrete things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People, places, events, goals, … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include abstract things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas, concepts that don’t have concrete examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. “shoe-ness”—the notion of what it is to be a shoe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shoes are concrete and ephermeral </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ shoe-ness” is just a term we invent when we need it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Finding Structure <ul><li>Documents can be mapped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From unstructured, linear text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To structured representations: issue maps </li></ul></ul>Teasing structure out of linear text After Jeff Conklin: http:// =pxS5wUljfjE
  10. 10. Example OpEd Document Food Crisis Related to Competing Uses of Crops
  11. 11. Issue Map of OpEd Made with Compendium
  12. 12. Key Node in the Issue Map And Entailed Subjects Subjects related to production of crops that feed beef Many subjects are found in every document, every story. A task for CALO is to facilitate capturing and representing those subjects and their relationships. A later task is reminding with the Dashboard.
  13. 13. Knowledge Gardening with CALO Image Courtesy Katy Borner Large-scale Discourse: Sharing and discussing subjects
  14. 14. Knowledge gardening is… Collaborative problem solving in rugged fitness landscapes Images: Focusing on details and working together Understanding big pictures
  15. 15. Knowledge gardening is… Facilitating large-scale discourse <ul><li>Towards a cultivated ecosystem… </li></ul>ordered gardens wild borders ordered gardens wild borders Structured but emergent networks of claims and arguments Informally expressed claims and arguments, awaiting ‘proper linkage’ Source: Simon Buckingham Shum
  16. 16. Knowledge Gardening is… <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federated Information resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emails </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tags </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annotations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge maps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensemaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypermedia Discourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federation </li></ul></ul>Image copyright Alan Jaras, used with permission /
  17. 17. Knowledge Gardening is based on Douglas Engelbart’s Dynamic Knowledge Repository (DKR) Software Infrastructure Memory, Collaboration DKR = People + Tools Learning Communities
  18. 18. Knowledge Gardening as Federated Human Knowledge Subject Domains Related to CALO Projects Learning Cultures Politics History Religion Simulation Wellness Nutrition Addictions Aging Cancer Knowledge Garden
  19. 19. Knowledge Gardening: Subject-centric Federation <ul><li>Federation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bringing heterogeneous information resources together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subject-centric organization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-locating representations of the same subject together in a knowledge map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A map is not the territory it represents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides well-organized collective memory </li></ul>
  20. 20. Knowledge Maps as Collective Memory A Topic Map lies above information resources (documents) and weaves that information into a fabric made of subjects and their relationships that serves as a collective memory Source: Steve Pepper
  21. 21. Gardening with Tagomizer A User asserts a Tag on a Resource A tag is a reminder that associates the resource with CALO projects, or subjects, relationships, or other ideas mentioned in the resource “ Semantic Desktop”
  22. 22. Tagging and Annotating Bookmarking with Tagomizer facilitates Tagging and Annotating. An annotation is fully addressable, editable, and can be tagged or annotated.
  23. 23. Gardening By Connecting A User asserts a relationship between ideas expressed at two different resources Semantic Desktop concept “ is exemplified by ”
  24. 24. Connecting with Cohere
  25. 25. Gardening through Dialogue Users Ask and Answer Questions, and Discuss the Answers Compendium Screenshot
  26. 26. Dialogue with DebateGraph
  27. 27. DocAssist: CALO’s Knowledge Gardening Tools <ul><li>Assist in Document Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves to assist in mapping subjects and relationships back to documents for distribution or use in events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three (present) components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tagomizer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPoint Harvester </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dashboard (in preparation) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. CALO’s DocAssist <ul><li>First project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagomizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support Social Tagging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning in the wild </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to Subject Map </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Second project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPoint Harvester </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest PowerPoint presentations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select and organize slides for a new presentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Third project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dashboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports document preparation with </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Well-organized subject-related information resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copy and paste </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reminding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works with </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tagomizer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject Map </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issue maps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPoint Harvester </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CALO PrePak </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. DocAssist PowerPoint Harvester Find and recombine subjects from PowerPoint slides
  30. 30. DocAssist Dashboard <ul><li>Provides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mashup of selected information resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy and Paste resources into document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reminding of key concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid access to related resources </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Knowledge Gardening With CALO <ul><li>Stages of Basic Research Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forage  Filter  Analyze  Synthesize </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At each stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue where appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behaviors part of a larger Sensemaking Strategy </li></ul>
  32. 32. Forage Stage <ul><li>Information seeking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal directed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thematic vagabonding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tagging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leave trails, scents, markers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tagging principles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct association with projects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct association with subjects and ideas found in resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annotating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represent ideas found in resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Link ideas with coherence relations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Filter Stage <ul><li>Tagging approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tag retrieved resources according to opinions of value/contribution to a project/goal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dialogue approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask and answer questions related to value/contribution of a resource to a project/goal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annotation approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use coherence relations to assert relationships of resources to project/goal </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Analysis Stage <ul><li>Create documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports, slides, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveal new/discovered subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveal new/discovered relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publish documents </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue details of the documents </li></ul>
  35. 35. Synthesis Stage <ul><li>Tie results to the larger picture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find and declare meanings of results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find and declare values of results </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Sensemaking Strategy <ul><li>From starting goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iterate on these elements uncovered through research behaviors : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rules/laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek answers </li></ul></ul>Gowin’s Vee Diagram * * Novak, J. D., and D. B. Gowin (1984). Learning How to Learn. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  37. 37. Contributions of this work <ul><li>Provide a candidate on-line collaboratory for CALO users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a topic map that maintains the subject-centric federation of CALO users’ resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds value to Tagomizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turns it into the full topic map it was designed to be </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the new DocAssist Dashboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a new framework for further learning research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer learning through federation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LITW through emerging discoveries based on collective sensemaking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Questions? Thank You! [email_address]