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Modeling Names

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This paper argues that the hierarchy between topic name items and variant items of the TMDM resembles a hierarchy between names and particular renderings of names in the real world, but for this resemblance to be a better match, topic name items should loose the requirement to always have a value property.

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Modeling Names

  1. 1. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Modeling Names Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 1 of 28
  2. 2. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Variants TopicName: type: Topic value: String scope: Set<Topic> variants: Set<Variant> Variant: value: String datatype: IRI scope: Set<Topic> Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 2 of 28
  3. 3. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 kill Variants? TopicName: type: Topic value: String scope: Set<Topic> ☠ variants: Set<Variant> Variant: value: String datatype: IRI scope: Set<Topic> Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 3 of 28
  4. 4. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 What are variants? „A variant name is an alternative form of a topic name that may be more suitable in a certain context than the corresponding base name.” Well, then we can actually drop variants and replace them with topic names. Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 4 of 28
  5. 5. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 What are variants? „A variant name is an alternative form of a topic name that may be more suitable in a certain context than the corresponding base name.” [TMDM] When dropping variants, we loose the correspondence. Oh, there is correspondence. If there is correspondence, then: Each variant's value overrides its topic name's value (in a certain context). Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 5 of 28
  6. 6. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Default values of topic names Consider: topic name which contains some variants. As an author: How to determine the default value? Choose any of the variants' values? Which? Throw the dice? Ask a sun^W^Wan oracle? Take the variant who you are most familiar with? Your default value is most likely culture-dependent. Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 6 of 28
  7. 7. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 No default values of topic names! Cultural bias in default values of topic names? Cultural bias in Topic Maps. Should be avoided. Proposed solution: Drop default values of topic names. Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 7 of 28
  8. 8. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 What makes names different? Consider the city at 41°N 29°E Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 8 of 28
  9. 9. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Different or not different? „Constantinople“ (English) „Konstantinopolis“ (Turkish) Are these names different? Maybe... o n s ta n ti C K le olis Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 9 of 28
  10. 10. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Different or not different? „Konstantiniyye“ „‫“قسطنطينيه‬ Are these names different? Looks like they are different. Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 10 of 28
  11. 11. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Different or not different? „Konstantiniyye“ (Ottoman Turkish) „‫“قسطنطينيه‬ (Ottoman Turkish) Are these names different? Well... Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 11 of 28
  12. 12. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Different or not different? „Konstantiniyye“ (Ottoman Turkish) „‫“قسطنطينيه‬ (Ottoman Turkish) Both names encode the same sound. Are these names different? Uh! Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 12 of 28
  13. 13. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 More candidates „Istanbul“ (English) „İstanbul“ (Turkish) Are these names different? Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 13 of 28
  14. 14. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 More candidates „Istanbul“ (English) „İstanbul“ (Turkish) „Constantinople“ (English) „Konstantinopolis“ (Turkish) „Konstantiniyye“ (Ottoman Turkish, Latin script) „‫“قسطنطينيه‬ (Ottoman Turkish, Arabic script) Are these names different? Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 14 of 28
  15. 15. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Groups of names „Istanbul“ (English) „İstanbul“ (Turkish) „Constantinople“ (English) „Konstantinopolis“ (Turkish) „Konstantiniyye“ (Ottoman Turkish, Latin script) „‫“قسطنطينيه‬ (Ottoman Turkish, Arabic script) Apparently, there is some „natural grouping“. Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 15 of 28
  16. 16. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Grouping properties Names within each group are „somehow“ similar. For each scope, there is only one name per group. Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 16 of 28
  17. 17. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Group<->members Name<->variants It looks like there is a structural match between observed patterns and TMDM Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 17 of 28
  18. 18. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Let's check the match group member scope of member (Name #1) “Istanbul” English “İstanbul” Turkish (Name #2) “Constantinople” English “Konstantinopolis” Turkish “Konstantiniyye” Ottoman Turkish (Latin-based script) “‫”قسطنطينيه‬ Ottoman Turkish (Arabic-based script) Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 18 of 28
  19. 19. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Blueprint for topic names and variants Except: There is no value for the topic name. There are only values for the variants. Thus: Abandon default values for topic names! Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 19 of 28
  20. 20. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 How to fix (the TMDM)? Well, we know: TMDM is not going to change any time soon. But maybe later. 3 possible solutions: Making the topic name's value property optional. Removing the topic name's value property. Removing the topic name. Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 20 of 28
  21. 21. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Making the topic name item's value property optional Plain implementation of the requirement. Softly requires apps to employ value selection algorithms. Allows for bad Topic Maps design (e.g. choosing default value anyway). Perfectly compatible with existing Topic Maps. May be to weak to actually drive change. Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 21 of 28
  22. 22. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Removing the topic name item's value property TopicName: type: Topic value: String scope: Set<Topic> variants: Set<Variant> Variant: value: String datatype: IRI scope: Set<Topic> Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 22 of 28
  23. 23. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Removing the topic name item's value property For each old topic name, create an additional new variant. Need to remove scope-restriction on variants as well. Now apps are forced to employ value selection algorithms. Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 23 of 28
  24. 24. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Removing the topic name item What?!? Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 24 of 28
  25. 25. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Removing the topic name item TopicName: type: Topic value: String scope: Set<Topic> variants: Set<Variant> Variant: value: String datatype: IRI scope: Set<Topic> Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 25 of 28
  26. 26. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Replacing the topic name item TopicName: NameRendering: type: Topic type: Topic value: String scope: Set<Topic> variants: Set<Variant> Variant: value: String value: String datatype: IRI datatype: IRI scope: Set<Topic> scope: Set<Topic> Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 26 of 28
  27. 27. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Replacing the topic name item NameRendering is binary compatible to Occurrence Looks like Characteristic More opportunity to simplify the TMDM Still compatible to current TMDM Model grouping of names using TMDM, not within TMDM using „name rendering group“ Disadvantage: complex query if only one rendering per group should be retrieved. Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 27 of 28
  28. 28. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Outlook How, actually, should a value selection algorithm work? User-culture-dependent, not author-culture-dependent How to model names for analysis? Patterns for speech recognition What about sortnames? Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 28 of 28
  29. 29. TMRA 2009: Modeling Names 2009-11-13 Finish спасибо (Russian) დიდი მადლობა (Georgian) ‫شكرا‬ (Arabic) 謝謝 (Mandarin) ありがとう (Japanese) ‫רב תודות‬ (Hebrew) ᖁᔭᓇᐃᓐᓂ (Inuktitut) ki'esai (Lojban) Xuân Baldauf <xuan--names--2009--tmra.de@academia.baldauf.org> 29 of 28

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