History 140: History/Americas thru 1800 Dr. Arguello Patricia Fonseca November 1, 2011
• Spain and Portugal were leaders in global exploration and the expansion of trade routes.• Spain indulged in a cultural golden age in the 16th and 17th centuries.• Spain was able to finance its series of wars in Europe and Africa by mining for silver in Mexico and through the importation of luxuries and grain.• Some of the first modern idea on natural law, sovereignty, international law, war, and economics began with Spanish thinkers.
• Spain reached its status as a powerful world empire under Charles l who became king in 1516.• The Habsburgs rule brought the height of Spain’s power as well as its decline.• The Habsburg inheritance was broken into two parts; One part to Spain and the other part to the Holy Roman Empire.• Although Spain was considered the leading European power, it was flung into expensive wars and suffered an economic crisis.• 1596-1602: Spain suffered a great plague that killed more than 1,250,000 people.• During Philip lll’s reign, Spain lost the war in central Europe, lost control of Portugal, and essentially became a second-rank power.
• The Spanish Empire began to form during the Age of Exploration and was considered one of the first global empires.• It included areas and colonies in Europe, Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania.• The Spanish exploratory voyage lead to the discovery of America.• America soon became a central part of Spanish exploration and colonization.• Ferdinand Magellan and Juan Sebastian Elcano discovered a westward route to Asia, creating access to the Spice Islands.• It wasn’t until the end of the War of the Spanish Succession that Pain’s European possessions were given up.• Spain did keep control of its large overseas empire.
• Even though Castile and Aragon were merged together, each territory adhered to its own administration or juridical configuration.• Spain established itself as it formed treaties and placed colonies throughout the world.• Spain’s desire to expand and colonize was rooted in the hopes of spreading Catholicism throughout the New World.• Spain established itself as a military force which brought its kings the reputation for invincibility.• Spain sought to establish settlements in Italy, Africa, America, and Asia.• The Golden Age of Spain was controlled from Seville
• The struggles for Charles V for Italy were overwhelming.• The Italians and Germans were afraid he would become even more powerful so Pope Clement Vll joined alliance with France.• This lead to the falling out between the church and the secular section of the country.• 1529: The Peace of Barcelona brought a friendly relationship between the church and the Charles V.• Charles V became the King of Italy in return for Spanish intervention in overthrowing the rebellious Florentine Republic.
• Charles V inadvertently went to war with Germany with a mixed Dutch-Spanish army.• 1555: Charles V signed the Peace of Augsburg with the Protestants and initiated a new stability in Germany using a position that was not found favorable with Spanish and Italian clergymen.• This action threw Spain into the role of protector of the Catholic, Habsburg cause in the Holy Roman Empire.• It ultimately lead to Spain entering the war that would surely end Spain’s position as Europe’s leading power.• European battles with Spain during Philip ll’s reign became consuming. Portugal was trying to break free and Spain was suffering financially.• Philip lll was able to call a truce with England and France long enough to rebuild the finances of Spain which led to the recovery of Spain through the 18th century and Philip V’s reign.