The Portuguese Empire History 140: History/Americas thru 1800 Dr. Arguello Patricia Fonseca November 1, 2011
The History of Portugal• During Europe’s “Age of Discovery” Portugal was considered a world power.• Portugal ranked with Spain, France and England in economic cultural and political influence.• Portugal expanded their control of territory along the lucrative trade routes, setting up posts in different locations that increased their wealth.• August 4, 1578: King Sebastian dies in battle without an heir to the thrown.• January 31, 1580: King Henry l dies.• Philip ll of Spain claimed the Portuguese thrown; Spain invaded Portugal and the Spanish and Portuguese were ruled under King Philip l.
The Consolidation of the Monarchy• Portugal was ruled by Spain from 1580-1640.• Portugal’s wealth started to gradually decrease.• Under Spanish rule, Portugal lost many of its original allies including England.• Many of Portugal’s cities were taken by the Dutch and English who wanted to capture control of the Atlantic slave trade and the spice trade with the Far East.• 1625: Spain and Portugal began a major military operation to take back the lands they had lost to the Dutch.• 1640: Portugal claims its independence from Spain.
The Portuguese Empire• The Portuguese Empire was the first global empire in history and was the longest-lived of the modern European colonial empires.• The union with Spain deteriorated Portuguese funds and led to the loss of many colonies to the Dutch.• 1696: After Portugal had lost its dominant hold of the spice trade industry to the English, French and Dutch, they discovered gold and diamonds in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Gioas leading to a “gold rush”.• The population grew 750% up until 1770.• The gold rush generated income for the crown during this time.• 1775: An earthquake centered in Lisbon combined with a tsunami wiped out 100,000 people of the 275,000 that populated the area.
Portugal in the Period of the Discoveries• July 25, 1415: The Portuguese Empire begins to form as the Portuguese Armada moved into Ceuta, North Africa.• August 21, 1415: The Portuguese Empire conquers Ceuta and Founds The Portuguese Empire.• 1420-1445: Portugal inhabits the Madeira Island and the Azorean islands.• 1494: The Treaty of Tordesillas is signed with Spain, dividing the world in half between Spain and Portugal.• April 22, 1500: Brazil is claimed for Portugal allowing trades to open with the East.• 1501- 1514: Portugal started the process of globalization with millions of inhabitants in the Americas, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, China and Japan.
Colonial Brazil• 1494: The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed between Portugal and Spain, divided the world in half between the two countries.• April 22, 1500: Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed Brazil for Portugal.• Brazil’s first attempt at colonizing Brazil began with fifteen private captaincies. Thirteen of these failed.• 1549: Tome de Sousa established a central government in Brazil.• 1553-1573: The aborigines engaged the colonists in many disputes until the aborigines were defeated in 1573.• 1621: King Philip ll decided to start expanding the colonies into separate states to accommodate the large size of Brazil.• Each colonial village and city had its own city council. These members regulated commerce, public infrastructure, professional artisans, and prisons etc.
Colonial Brazil• 1500-1815: The Brazilian economy was built on brazilwood extraction, sugar production, and gold and diamond mining.• During this time, slaves comprised the majority of the work force.• Jesuits were brought into the colonies to establish the Catholic religion in not only the colonists but also the indigenous peoples.• The Jesuits inadvertently exposed the indigenous peoples to infectious diseases that the aborigines had no natural defenses against.• 1560-1612: The Portuguese continuously waged war against French settlers, expelling the French from the territories each time.• September 7, 1822: Brazil gained independence from Portugal ending 322 years of rule under Portugal.