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Chapter 15, Eng 101


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This presentation takes material directly from Writing Arguments, a text used to teach Eng 101 at our college, Orangeburg-Calhoun Technical College.

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Chapter 15, Eng 101

  1. 1. Chapter 15, Eng 101 Proposal Arguments: We Should (Should Not) Do X
  2. 2. An Overview of Proposal Arguments <ul><li>Their essence is that they call for action. </li></ul><ul><li>In reading a proposal, the audience is enjoined to make a decision and then to act on it --- to do something. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes called should or ought arguments because those helping verbs express the obligation to act: We should do X or We ought to do X.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Two Kinds of Proposal Arguments <ul><li>Practical proposals – propose an action to solve some kind of local or immediate problem. (See ex. on 321) </li></ul><ul><li>Policy proposals – the writer offers a broad plan of action to solve major social, economic, or political problems affecting the common good. (See ex. On 321) </li></ul><ul><li>The primary difference is the narrowness versus breadth of the concern. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Structure of Proposal Arguments <ul><li>Description of a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed solution </li></ul><ul><li>Justification for the proposed solution </li></ul><ul><li>In the justification section of your proposal argument, you develop because clauses of the kinds you have practiced throughout this text. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal Arguments </li></ul>
  5. 5. Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments <ul><li>The Need for Presence </li></ul><ul><li>The Need to Overcome People’s Natural Conservatism </li></ul><ul><li>The Difficulty of Predicting Future Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>The Problem of Evaluating Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Proposal Arguments </li></ul>
  6. 6. Developing a Proposal Argument <ul><li>Convincing Your Readers That a Problem Exists (Give your problem presence through anecdotes, telling statistics, or other means that show readers how the problem affects people or otherwise has important stakes.) </li></ul><ul><li>Showing the Specifics of Your Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>The Justification : Convincing Your Readers That Your Proposal Should be Enacted </li></ul>
  7. 7. Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements <ul><li>One-page newspaper or magazine advertisements often purchased by advocacy groups to promote a cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Such arguments also appear as Web pages or as posters or fliers. </li></ul><ul><li>The creators know that they must work fast to capture our attention, give presence to a problem, advocate a solution, and enlist our support. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Using the Claim-Type Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument <ul><li>We should do X (proposal claim) </li></ul><ul><li>Because X is a Y (categorical claim) </li></ul><ul><li>Because X will lead to good consequences (causal claim) </li></ul><ul><li>Because X is like Y (resemblance claim) </li></ul><ul><li>With each of these because clauses, the arguer’s goal is to link X to one or more goods the audience already values. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Assignment <ul><li>Answer Questions 1 and 2 on p. 331 </li></ul>