38. Every soul, for what it has earned, will be retained
39. Except the companions of the right,
40. [Who will be] in gardens, questioning each other
41. About the criminals,
42. [And asking them], "What put you into Saqar?"
43. They will say, "We were not of those who prayed,
44. Nor did we used to feed the poor.
45. And we used to enter into vain discourse with those who engaged
46. And we used to deny the Day of Recompense
47. Until there came to us the certainty."
48. So there will not benefit them the intercession of [any]
49. Then what is [the matter] with them that they are, from the
reminder, turning away
50. As if they were alarmed donkeys
51. Fleeing from a lion?
52. Rather, every person among them desires that he would be given
scriptures spread about.
53. No! But they do not fear the Hereafter.
54. No! Indeed, the Qur'an is a reminder
55. Then whoever wills will remember it.
56. And they will not remember except that Allah wills. He is worthy of
fear and adequate for [granting] forgiveness.
The title chosen by Dr. Wahbatu Zuhaili in his tafseer muneer for
these verses is: The conversation between the righteous and the
Cause of revelation (النزول )سبب
Abu Jahl and some groups from Quraysh said: Oh Muhammad!
We will never believe in you until you bring a book from the
heaven for each of us with the title: From the Lord of the worlds
to so and so commanding us to follow you
These verses informed us about the event of the Day of
Judgment will be individual. Criminals will be retained for
questioning and punishment while the righteous (after
his/her brief appearance before Allah) will be forgiven of
mistakes and rewarded with bliss.
Judgment will be according to the deeds of individual.
People of righteousness will be saved from punishment
and admitted into the pleasure of Allah while the
criminals will be destroyed due to their corruption in faith
The people of the right side are the believers who will
receive their books (of life records maintained by the two
angels) in their right hands, they will not be retained (as
criminals) to account for their actions since their correct
believes and many righteousness with sincerity has wiped
out their mistakes with the little left to be interceded for.
In their places in paradise with pleasure and tranquility,
the believers will be shown the calamity and agony of the
criminals in hell as an added visual enjoyment. The
disbelievers enjoyed mocking the believers while the later
obey the commandments of Allah in this life (example:
Q5 v 57 & 58).
The believers will ask the criminals (in order to increase
them in regret and pains): What has caused you to enter
hell? Their replies will be as in verses 42-47
The “certainty” referred to in verse 47 is “death”.
The intercession of whom Allah has permitted to
intercede (the prophets, the angels and the devotedly
righteous believers) will not be extended to these
criminals (who have committed the crimes mentioned).
This is because their fate of inhabiting hell has been
Allah ended the chapter with some rhetorical questions
elaborating on the foolishness in turning away from His
clear guidance which the messengers have brought and
some reminders as tonics for those who wish to take
Culled from tafsir muneer by Dr. Wahbatu Zuhaili
Adab: Etiquettes of Trade and Business
Points to cover include:
A. Virtues and allurement to trade and business
B. Etiquettes of trade
D. The permitted and prohibited of trade and
1. A Muslim must view Trade and business transaction as:
a. A means of seeking livelihood
b. A cause to seek the pleasure of Allah
2. In Q78:11 and Q7:10 Allah mentioned that He has made
provision in nature for men to trade as a blessing that
requires better utilization and gratitude.
3. In Q2:198 Allah mentioned how direct worship and trade
should be managed
4. In Sahih Bukhari, the prophet (SAW) said: the best food
for a man to consume is that which he obtained from the
gains of his work/struggle.
5. The prophet (SAW) also said that prophet Dawud (AS) will
like to eat from the gain of his handwork.
6. Ibn Abbas (RA) said: Our Father Adam (AS) is a farmer;
Prophet Nuh (AS) a carpenter; Prophet Idrees (AS) a
tailor; Prophets Ibraheem and Lut (AS) were farmers;
Prophet Soolih (AS) a trader; Prophet Dawud (AS) an
ironsmith; Prophets Musa, Shuaib and Muhammad (AS)
7. (Prophet) Luqman once advised his son on seeking means
of sustenance through trade to save himself from three:
(1) disgrace to his religion (2) weakness in intellect (3) loss
of dignity or inability to protect his dignity. The worst of
the three is the last.
8. Imam Ahmad ibn Hambal was asked about one man who
chose to remain devoted to worship in the mosque and
not work. He replied that the man has acted on
ignorance. He continues by saying that Allah has placed
my sustenance under my spear. The Muslim warriors
occupied in jihad strategies and execution to defend
Islam will gain their sustenance from war booty.
9. Seeking means of sustenance and livelihood is part of
every moving creature. An example of the birds that
scout the surface of the earth for food while flying in the
air. It is a routine activity.
10. The companions of the prophet were devoted
worshippers of Allah yet they will source for sustenance
and livelihood on the land and on the sea, indicating their
view of seeking sustenance as a type of worship
11. Abu Darda’ was reported to have said that he had
difficulty in combining worship and trade and he chose
worship and left trade. The explanation is that the intent
for work is not just for the sake of working to accumulate
wealth but rather (1) to seek the pleasure of Allah
(2) to protect the dignity of oneself from the abuse of
joblessness (3) to sustain one’s family and prevent them
from the lowliness of begging (4) to attain a significant
status of recognition among the family. Once these aims
have been achieved then the intent of trade and
transactions will be considered accomplished. Hence,
leaders of an Islamic state and the scholars may suffice
themselves with the noble task of administration and
scholarship training while their needs were been catered
for by government.
12. Any trade and business transactions must comply with
the following requirements: (1) it must be in line with
what is permitted in the Shariah of Islam (2) Justice must
be established with it (3) it must be for some goodness or
benefit (4) it must not prevent the practice/establishment
of the religion.
13. Trade has the following pillars: (1) the buyer or the seller
(2) the item of trade/business itself (3) the statement or
conclusion of transactions
14. The buyer or seller: (1) must be of sound mind (not
insane) (2) must not be a slave (except after confirmation
from his/her master to buy or sell) (3) must not be a
youngster (except with a written instruction from his
parent/guardian to buy from him or sell to him).
15. It is permissible to sell to or buy from a blind person if the
later can describe the product of the trade.
16. It is not permissible to buy from one who is known to
steal other people’s property.
17. The item of trade: (1) it must be what is permitted in the
Shariah (2) it must not support vices and corruption (eg,
fireworks, xmas tree, cigarette, etc) (3) it must be an
existing and present item. i.e, a flying bird cannot be sold
until it is caught; a foetus of animal cannot be sold until it
is born (4) it must be definite and specific (by accurate
description or appreciation) (5) it must not cause harm
(eg, a breastfeeding animal cannot be sold without its
mother, the mother cannot be sold without the child) (6)
it must be present at the point of sale (except large
goods, i.e, stored in the warehouse, airplane on the
airport; a document of authorization to pick-up the goods
must be issued after payment).
18. Concerning online shopping, the “pay on delivery” is the
most suitable option. The goods will be examined and
appreciated by the buyer, the payment will be made and
the transaction will be concluded with mutual satisfaction
on a face-to-face basis).
19. The statement of transaction: Both the buyer and the
seller must issue a definite, clear and conclusive
statement of interest to buy or sell by spoken or written
expressions. Note: This type of definite statement is
common to most contracts in Islam, e.g., marriage.
20. Trade or business involving usury is invalid and cursed.
Any agreement on such will also be invalid.
21. A Muslim trader, artisan or business owner must
understand the rules of the Shariah governing the type of
his chosen trade or profession.
22. Injustice associated with trade and business
transactions: There are some tactics of trade and
business transactions understood by the traders and
artisans. These tactics can be manipulated to cause harm
and injustice. A Muslim trader or artisans must be careful
on the following:
i. Hoarding: it is impermissible to cause artificial
scarcity by stockpiling valuable common public items
until they become rare with the intention to hike the
price. However, it is permissible to preserve and store
excess produce until when the people are in need.
ii. Cheating/Deception: The intent here is when the
seller hides the defect of the item of sale or service in
order to gain a value above it’s worth. This also
includes exploiting on the buyers’ surprise at the
availability of the item. It is also not permissible to
mix items of low quality with high one. The prophet
(SAW) said: Whoever deceives us is not from us (ie. is
not having our standard).
iii. An-Najas: This is a type of support or cooperation to
cheat/deceive the buyer. This is when the seller has
negotiated with his colleague to support him on the
description of the item of sale during the transaction
until the buyer succumbs to their description and
buys the product at a cost that is not its’ worth. Like
the supporter saying: “you cannot get this product
elsewhere for a price better than this”
23. Goodness and mercy in trade: it is important that a
trader be gentle and merciful and accepts sold goods
from the buyer if the later has a valid reason for the
return. This reason may include the buyer having other
urgent need to attend to with the money other than what
he has bought. If the time of purchase is reasonably short
and the item is undamaged, the seller should consider
accepting the return as a benevolent gesture to save the
buyer from distress. This is because the ultimate intent of
trade is not for profit but for seeking the pleasure of Allah
through obeying his commands and making livelihood
easy by participating in the unavoidable human needs
contained in trade.
In conclusion, the trader must understand the following points to
succeed in the accomplishment of the aforementioned (1)
Sincere intention (2) to consider it as fard kifaayah (collective
obligation) (3) the market of this world must not hinder us from
the market of the hereafter (mosque) (4) the remembrance of
Allah should be part of trade and business (5) we should not be
the first to enter the market and the last to leave (6) must not
involve himself in what is doubtful.
ُاهلل ىَّلَص ِاهلل ُولُسَر َالَق :َالَق ،ٍودُعْسَم ِنْب ِاهلل ِدْبَع ْنَع
:َمَّلَسَو ِهْيَلَع«ىَلِإ يِدْهَي َّرِبْلا َّنِإَو ،ٌّرِب َقْدِّالص َّنِإ
َدْبَْعلا َّنِإَو ،َِّةنَْجلاَدْنِع َبَتْكُي َّىتَح ،َقْدِّالص ىَّرَحَتَيَل
يِدْهَي َورُجُفْلا َّنِإَو ،ٌورُجُف َبِذَكْلا َّنِإَو ،اًقِّيدِص ِاهلل
َبَتْكُي َّىتَح ،َبِذَكْلا ىَّرَحَتَيَل َدْبَْعلا َّنِإَو ،ِرَّانال ىَلِإ
Abdullah ibn Mas’ud reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace
and blessings be upon him, said, “Verily, truthfulness leads to
righteousness and righteousness leads to Paradise. A man may
speak the truth until he is recorded with Allah as truthful.
Verily, falsehood leads to wickedness and wickedness leads to
the Hellfire. A man may tell lies until he is recorded with Allah
as a liar.”
Sahih Muslim 2607
Imam Nawawi explained that taking and implementing the
messages from the hadith will not be easy except with sincere
determination. This statement of the imam is especially true with
the type of society we live in today.
Understanding of Truth:
Truth is the opposite of falsehood. A statement will be
considered true only if it conforms accurately to the situation or
event it describes. For example, a man that is about to enter a
home will not be considered to have said the truth if he informed
his caller (on a phone call) that he is in the home. The
information must be accurate and exact according to the best of
the person’s knowledge.
Truth is an integral part of faith. A character of believer
Among the believers are men true to what they promised Allah.
Among them is he who has fulfilled his vow [to the death], and among
them is he who awaits [his chance]. And they did not alter [the terms
of their commitment] by any alteration –
That Allah may reward the truthful for their truth and punish the
hypocrites if He wills or accept their repentance. Indeed, Allah is ever
Forgiving and Merciful.
119. O You who believe! be afraid of Allâh, and be with those who are
true (in Words and deeds) .
21. obedience (to Allâh) and good Words (were better for them). and
when the matter (preparation for Jihâd) is resolved on, Then if they
had been true to Allâh, it would have been better for them.
A high rank with Allah
69. and whoso obeys Allâh and the Messenger (Muhammad), Then
they will be In the company of those on whom Allâh has bestowed his
Grace, of the Prophets, the Siddiqûn (those followers of the Prophets
who were first and foremost to believe In them, like Abu Bakr
As-Siddiq ), the martyrs, and the righteous. and How excellent These
A believer cannot be a liar
Safwan ibn Sulaym said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him
and grant him peace, was asked, 'Can a believer be a coward?' He said,
'Yes.' He was asked, 'Can a believer be a miser?' He replied, 'Yes.' He
was asked, 'Can a believer be a liar?' He said, 'No.'"
(Imam Malik, Mishkaat)
Part of a success chain
Abdullahi ibn Abbas said: Four things were inseparable from
Manifestations of Truth
1. Truthfulness of the tongue (sidqu lisaan): This is when
the tongue always utters statements that give the actual
description of the reality, it may not necessarily be
correct for absolute flawlessness is only with Allah.
2. Truthfulness of intention (sidqu niyyah wal iraada): This
is when the sayings, actions, involvement and abstention
are only for the sake of Allah. This type of truthfulness is
necessary to continue on the commandments of Allah
and keep away from what He has prohibited, especially in
the kind of society we live in today.
3. Truthfulness of determination (sidqul azm): This will be
established by steadfastness, perseverance for the sake
of Allah. For example, a fellow trader may continue to
accumulate gains through cheating and deceit, but you
cannot, if you are sincere in your determination to always
stand by the truth.
4. Truthfulness in deeds/actions:
2. O You who believe! why do You Say that which You do not do?
3. Most hateful it is with Allâh that You Say that which You do not do.
5. Truthfulness to deliver trust (sidqul waffaa):
8. And they who are to their trusts and their promises attentive
Types of Truth
1. Truthfulness with Allah: This is the foundation of Truth.
Allah has created us with the natural instinct to recognize
and worship Him. Shaytan is striving to corrupt this trait
and lead us astray. Allah sent prophets and messengers
to re-establish the truth with the clearest proofs. Anyone
who turns away from this manifest guidance has
demonstrated the highest level of falsehood. This will
lead to oppression on others. Upholding the Book of Allah
is a demonstration of truthfulness
43. So adhere to that which is revealed to you. Indeed, you are on a
44. And indeed, it is a remembrance for you and your people, and you
[all] are going to be questioned.
124. and whoever does righteous good deeds, male or female, and is a
true believer In the Oneness of Allâh (Muslim), such will enter Paradise
and not the least injustice, even to the size of a Naqîra (speck on the
back of a date-stone), will be done to them.
A Bedouin Arab embraced Islam and fought in jihad, he sustained
a wound from an arrow shot on the battlefield, the prophet gave
him his share from the war booty but he said “I did not fight
because of this, my intention is martyrdom to gain the reward of
Allah” the prophet said “if you are truthful and sincere, Allah will
make that evident and grant you your reward in full”, shortly
afterwards, the man was martyred in another battle, the prophet
said “he ascertained his truthfulness with Allah and Allah will
surely reward him accordingly”
2. Truthfulness with the prophet: This includes believe in
him and following him, not to innovate in the religion and
not to corrupt his message/sunnah.
Imam Bukhari once travelled to a scholar to collect some
hadiths from him. During his stay, the scholar used a food
basket as bait to catch his donkey. Imam Bukhari
witnessed this event and made a statement “I cannot rely
on a report from the one who tricked an animal”.
3. Truthfulness with the people:
ْنَعٌِْممَتْيِارَّدالَّْنَأًَِّْبَّنالىَّلَصْهللاِْهٌَلَع،َمَّلَس َوَْلاَق:«ٌْنهالدْهةٌَح ِصَّنال»اَنلهق:
؟نَمِلَْلاَق:«ِْ َّ ِلِلِْهِابَتِكِل َوِْهِلوهسَِرل َوِْةَّمِئَ ِِل َوٌَِْنمِلسهمالْمِهِتَّماَع َو»
Tameem ad-Dari (RA) said: “The Prophet(SAW) said,
(three times), “The Religion is naseeha (sincerity and
sincere advice).” We said, “To whom?” He said, “To
Allaah, His Book, His Messenger, and to the leaders of the
Muslims and the general people.”
[Saheeh Muslim No.55]
4. Truthfulness in trade: Swearing in trade to deceive
people remove the Barakah in it. No over emphasis on
the quality of goods, don’t hide the defects in goods.
Don’t mix items of low quality with high ones.
5. Truthfulness in witness: This includes court witness.
Election balloting is also a type of witness. False witness is
a serious violation of this principle.
ْنَعِْدبَعِْنَمحَّالرِْنبًِبَأ،َةَركَبْنَعِْهٌِبَأًَْ ِضَرْه َّللا،ههنَعَْلاَق:َْلاَقًِْبَّنال
َْلوهسَر،ِ َّللاَْلاَق« :ْهكاَرشِإلا،ِ َّالِلِبْهوقهقهع َوِْنٌَِدلا َالو-َْسَلَج َوَْانَك َواًئِكَّتهم
(Bukhari no. 2654)
6. Truthfulness in jokes and play: while Islam permits
limited jokes and riddles, it prohibits any lies associated in
the name of play. A Muslim cannot attend the “nite of a
thousand laughs” organized today where situations are
being imagined and fabricated for the sake of laughter.
َْمَّلَس َوْهلوهقٌَ:«ْلٌ َوِيذَّلِلْهثدَحهٌِْثٌِدَالحِبَْكِحضهٌِلِْهِبَْموَقال،هِبذكٌََفْلٌ َو
Islam permits only jokes that print the true reality
A woman once came to the prophet to discuss some issue
about her husband; the prophet said: “are you talking about
your husband who has whiteness in his eyes?” the woman
was surprised and said “no”. The prophet said “is it not that
every human being has whiteness in their eyes!. The woman
7. Truthfulness with the children: Whatever we promise a
child we must fulfill it. Promises to them are like promises
8. Truthfulness in family matters: Affairs of the home
should be disposed in truth, between the husband, wife
After the aforementioned however, with careful regulations, a
Muslim may be permitted to say what is apparently incorrect as
part of a strategy to victory or peace.
Narrated Um Kulthum bint `Uqba:
That she heard Allah's Messenger (SAW) saying, "He who makes
peace between the people by inventing good information or saying
good things, is not a liar."
(Sahih al-Bukhari 2692)
To reconcile between quarreling parties:
To avert harm
A case study
Hajaaj and his trickery with the Quraysh on khaybar victory.
Seerah: Alli & Fatimah
Alli (radiyallahu anhu)
Facts and figures
His names and nicknames
Name: Ali ibn Abi Taalib ibn Abdulmmutalib.
Abu turoob (father of sand): This nickname was given to
him by the prophet. One day, Ali had a disagreement with
his wife Fatima, so he left the home and went to lie down
on his back on the floor of the mosque near a pillar. The
prophet approached him and said “sit down!
Abu turoob”. Being a pronouncement by the prophet, it
became the most beloved nickname for him.
Father of the prophet grandsons
Alli ibn Abi Taalib ibn Abdulmutalib
Father Abi Taalib ibn Abdulmutalib
Mother Fatima bint Asad
Birthplace At the gate of the Ka’abah
Caliphacy tenure 656–661
Nicknames Abu Turoob
Died 21st Ramadan 40 AH
(Jan. 27, 661 CE)
His birth and upbringing
Born at the gate of kaabah 10 yrs before the prophet was
commissioned as a prophet by Allah.
He never prostrated to any idol.
His father Abi Talib was very honourable among the
His father was very generous
The Quraysh will give gifts to his father as part of their
honour for him.
His father had determination
Ali ibn Abi Talib inherited all these noted characteristics.
The prophet consulted his uncle Abbas on how they both
could assist Abi Talib on his large family. The prophet
took care of Ali and Abbas took care of Ja’far.
First to accept Islam among the youths: since he lived in
the house of the prophet, he was opportuned to be
among the first to appreciate and accept the message.
First to pray together with the prophet: also, as a male
among the household of the prophet, he was the first
person to observe solat together with the prophet.
The chosen pair companion of the prophet: When the
prophet arrived Madinah, he established brotherhood by
paring his companions, one muhaajir to one ansar, as
part of administrative and religious establishment.
A trustee of the prophet: When the prophet embarked
on the hijrah, he delegated him to sleep on his bed and
wait behind in order to return the items kept in trust with
the prophet to their original owners. When he was asked
why he accepted to deliver this task for the prophet, he
replied “when the prophet said I should deliver the task
and return to him in Madinah, I knew for sure that I will
not be consumed by the dangers in it”. This is a clear
demonstration of his faith in the sacredness of the
One among the 10 promised paradise: The prophet
(SAW) mentioned 10 of his companions by name and
conveyed the pleasure of Allah to them on the assurance
of their paradise with Allah. Ali ibn Abi Talib wjas one of
Reference: tobaqoot ibn saad, vol. 3 pg. 19
The name of his mother is Fatima ibn Assad
She accepted Islam and migrated (on the hijrah).
The prophet led the funeral proceedings after her death.
He lived an ascetic life: The simplicity in his lifestyle
He was a brave and courageous: He participated in all
battles except Tabook because the prophet charged him
to look after Madinah.
A knowledgeable companion: He once said “No ayah was
revealed in the Qur’an except that I knew when and on
what it was revealed”
Fatimah bintu Rosulullah
The leader of women in this life and in paradise.
Daughter of the Prophet (SAW), grew up in the house of
revelation and knowledge under the care of her father
who later became the Prophet of Allah.
She was the most beloved to the Prophet.
The Prophet will stand up to embrace and kiss her. The
Prophet once said “whoever harms her has caused me
The Prophet once called Ali and Fatimah and said: You are
both of my family
The prophet married her to Ali at the age of 15
She and her husband once concluded to make a request
for a housemaid from the prophet. The prophet
substituted the request with some tasbeehaat.
The prophet confided in her when he was dying: (1) Jubril
has informed me that I will not recover from my illness
(2) you will be the first among my family to join me.