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Senior Year Research Aids And Culture


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A study on how culture can affect the spread of AIDS in Sub Saharan Africa

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Senior Year Research Aids And Culture

  1. 1. TUMAINI MALENGA Bellarmine University SOC 410 RESEARCH METHODS AIDS AND CULTURE (Sub-Saharan Africa)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>It is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) </li></ul><ul><li>Targets the body defense system </li></ul><ul><li>Origins are unknown and widely debated </li></ul><ul><li>Fatality rate nears 100% </li></ul><ul><li>The Syndrome has no cure </li></ul>
  3. 3. GLOBAL STATISTICS <ul><li>According to the World Health Organization Global AIDS Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 40.3 million people are living with AIDS worldwide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A total of 25 million have died since the start of the epidemic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of adults living with AIDS is 38 million, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women make up 17.5 million of those infected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children under the age of 15 is 2.3 million. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.9 million people were newly infected in the year 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The total deaths in 2005 was 3.1 million. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. RESEARCH QUESTION <ul><li>Does culture affect the spread of HIV/AIDS in Sub Saharan Africa? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspects of a culture affecting the epidemic the most </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>2004 Report on the global AIDS epidemic. UNAIDS. June, 2004. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be the leading threat to the global community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is the leading infectious cause of adult death in the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a cause for economic, social and political concern. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV and AIDS have affected certain areas more than others; the hardest hit being the underdeveloped countries and lower-class citizens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No country in the world remains unaffected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of people living with AIDS continues to rise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS has killed one or both parents of an estimated 12 million children in sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women increasingly infected by HIV (1997=41%; 2002= 50%) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. CONTINENTAL STATISTICS 2.9 million   1.0%   4.3 million 39.5 million Global 4,000 0.40% 7,100 81,000 Oceania 36,000 0.20% 68,000 460,000 Middle East/North Africa 19,000 1.20% 27,000 250,000 Caribbean 12,000 0.30% 22,000 740,000 Western/Central Europe 84,000 0.90% 270,000 1.7 million Eastern Europe/Central Asia 18,000 0.80% 43,000 1.4 million North America 43,000 0.10% 100,000 750,000 East Asia 65,000 0.50% 140,000 1.7 million Latin America 590,000 0.60% 860,000 7.8 million South/Southeast Asia 2.1 million 5.90% 2.8 million 24.7 million Sub-Saharan Africa Adult (age 15+) and child deaths due to AIDS in 2006 Adult (age 15-49) prevalence (%), end 2006 New HIV infections among adults (age 15+) and children, end 2006 Adults (age 15+) and children living with HIV/AIDS, end 2006 Region
  7. 7. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>Caldwell et al. (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ The current risk factors are clear: living or working in an urban environment, having a large number of heterosexual partners, and suffering from genital lesions.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ There is no evidence that Africans are more likely to be sexually promiscuous than people from any other continent’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polygamy and the sense of self preservation may have negative consequences. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Altman (1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘… It is clear that globalization impacts upon sexuality in three ways. Economic changes mean that sexuality is increasingly commodified, whether through advertising or prostitution, which, as in the nineteenth century, is closely linked to economic dislocation and change. Cultural changes means that certain ideas about behavior and identity are widely dispersed, so that new ways of understanding oneself can become available that often conflict bitterly with traditional mores. And the political realm with determine what forms are available for sexual expression.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hope (2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today in Botswana vast numbers of people are moving around in the pursuit of work related or settlement pattern activities. Improved transportation, infrastructure and services in the country have increased mobility generally. That mobility in turn is associated with greater opportunities for sexual encounters and particularly so in the context of the accepted traditions of men having several sex partners which leads to the establishment of extensive sexual networks. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>Piggs (2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ International health wisdom sees issues around communication about sex as a problem of culture, while issues around communication about AIDS are seen as a problem of knowledge’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ The concept of language ideologies– that is, the beliefs and assumptions people hold about the nature of their own and other’s languages– is useful in understanding what occurs in the translation and communication of knowledge about AIDS.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luke (2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Relationships with older men who are sometimes referred to as “sugar daddies” reportedly involve an exchange of money or gifts for sexual favors. These age and economic asymmetries in sexual relationships—in addition to gender-based power differences—are believed to limit an adolescent girls’ ability to negotiate safe sexual behaviors’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescent girls motivation is love and to find a spouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older men guarantee financial security as spouse and increases social mobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing social status among peers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to provide financial support in the cases of unwanted pregnancies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some girls had both older men for financial support and peer boyfriends for emotional relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older Men motivation is the feeling of having the right to multiple sexual partners (cultural basis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to attract younger female enhances esteem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the man is unmarried the girls will provide domestic help </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men aware of the threat of AIDS increasingly seek younger women as a precaution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>Malenga (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The harmful attitudes and practices for some tribes include, when a young girl reaches puberty, she must sleep with a man, any man and not necessarily a husband. That is part of the initiation ceremony: There are other practices like initiation for both male and female adolescents, where surgical procedures on genitalia are carried out without proper hygienic measures and lead to sharing of contaminated instruments” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The very dangerous attitude is the submissive attitude of women towards their men counterparts such that this limits their negotiating power, even when it comes to sexual relationships. Again due to limited resources families have opted to educate their boy children at the expense of the girl child, because the male is the one that it is believed will fend for the family better, leaving a very vulnerable poor girl child, this is only a small part of a very big story” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When some men find themselves infertile they will ask a friend to have sexual intercourse with their wife for the sole purpose of getting her pregnant. The wife usually agrees or has no say in the matter. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. METHODOLOGY <ul><li>SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS (Sub Saharan Africa) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Health Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linear Regression using SPSS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COUNTRY PROFILE (CIA)- assessing; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS Statistics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. VARIABLES <ul><li>Dependent Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS Prevalence Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independent Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Ethnic groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literacy Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GDP Per Capita </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentage of Labor in Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population Percent Below Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Radio Stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of TV stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual Inequality (Difference in Literacy) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. RESULTS a Dependent Variable: AIDSPREV 0.362 0.937 0.235 0.017 0.016 TVSTAT 0.149 1.511 0.224 5.649 8.534 RADIOST 0.025 2.455 0.464 0.077 0.189 POVPOP 0.728 -0.354 -0.115 0.125 -0.044 LABINSER 0.705 0.385 0.144 0.001 0 GDPPC 0.038 2.247 0.444 0.073 0.163 LITERACT 0.644 -0.47 -0.088 0.052 -0.024 LANGUAG 0.434 -0.801 -0.209 1.138 -0.911 RELIGION 0.517 -0.662 -0.105 0.019 -0.012 ETHNICGR 0.241 -1.214 -0.198 51.548 -62.587 SEXRATT 0.209 -1.307 -0.254 0.129 -0.168 SEXINEQ 0.605 0.528   55.062 29.058 (Constant) 1 Beta Std. Error B Sig. t Standardized Coefficients Unstandardized Coefficients   Model Coefficients(a)
  13. 13. RESULTS <ul><li>The independent variables explain 67.7% of the change in the dependent variable. </li></ul>a Predictors: (Constant), TVSTAT, LANGUAG, RADIOST, LITERACT, ETHNICGR, SEXRATT, POVPOP, SEXINEQ, LABINSER, RELIGION, GDPPC 5.15176 0.468 0.677 .823(a) 1 Std. Error of the Estimate Adjusted R Square R Square R Model Model Summary
  14. 14. DICUSSION <ul><li>Industrialization coupled with poverty seemed to account for the majority of the escalating figures for AIDS statistics for much of Sub Saharan Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Low literacy especially for women has negative impacts and promote the spread of AIDS due to the dominance of the double standard in most parts of sub Saharan Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The more industrialized and literate a country is the higher the prevalence rates for HIV and AIDS, literacy relating to industrialization in terms of development </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually active (productive age) are most at risk of contracting the HIV virus </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS is decreasing the life expectancy of most of the countries in sub Saharan Africa </li></ul>
  15. 15. WEAKNESSES OF THE STUDY <ul><li>Time dedicated to the study was insufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology limited to running data and not interviewing subjects for deeper understanding </li></ul>
  16. 16. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FACTS <ul><li>Dennis Altman. Globalization, Political Economy and HIV/AIDS . Theory and Society. Vol. 28. No 4. Aug 1999. pg. 599-584 </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. AIDS : the ultimate challenge . New York: Macmillan, 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>Grace Malenga. Cultural practices and AIDS . E-mail to Tumaini Malenga. Mar 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>John C Caldwell, Pat Caldwell, Pat Quiggin. The Social Context of AIDS in Sub Saharan Africa. Population and Development Review. Vol. 15. No. 2. Jun, 1989. pg. 185-234 </li></ul>
  17. 17. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FACTS <ul><li>Katharina Kober, Wim Van Damme. Scaling up access to antiretroviral treatment in southern Africa: who will do the job? The Lancet. Jul 3- Jul 9, 2004. pg. 103 </li></ul><ul><li>Kempe Ronald Hope. Population Mobility and Multi-Partner Sex in Botswana: Implications for the spread of AIDS. African Journel of Reproductive health. Vol. 5 No. 3. Dec, 2001. pg. 73-83 </li></ul><ul><li>Nancy Luke. Age and Economic Asymmetries in Sexual Relationships of Adolescent Girls in Sub Saharan Africa. Studies in Family Planning. Vol. 34. Jun, 2003. pg. 67-86 </li></ul><ul><li>Stacy Leigh Pigg. Languages of sex and AIDS in Nepal: Notes on the social production of commensurability. Social Science module-Cultural Anthropology. Nov, 2001. pg. 481 </li></ul>
  18. 18. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FACTS <ul><li>&quot;World Health Organization Global AIDS Summary.&quot; . World Health Organization. 26 March 2006 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;ARV treatment in Developing countries: Questions of Economics, equity and ethics.&quot; . World Bank. 26 March 2006 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care.&quot; . 25 July 2003. UNESCO. 06 Apr. 2006 < >. </li></ul>