Stephen Toulmin was a British Philosopher, Author, and educator, who wanted to develop arguments that can be used to evaluate the ethics behind moral issues. He created a model which was used in the field of rhetoric called the Toulmin model of argumentation.
In an effort to break down to the core of an argument, Toulmin created the Toulmin model in which he uses a six component diagram where he describes step by step the validity of an argument. The Toulmin model helps to show how tightly constructed arguments are and how each part of an argument relates to the overall validity or reasonableness of that argument
The claim or Thesis is what you are trying to get the other person to except Example abortion should be banned
Grounds are the evidence, proves and data you have collected to support your claim. Example all babies have a right to live
The warrant links the claim and the evidence. It usually begins with words like all, every, any, or whenever. It contains mathematical formulas, universal laws of nature, rule of thumb, etc. Example There is a lack of adoptable babies because abortion is legal. The percentage of infants given up for adoption has declines from 9% to 1% between 1996 to 2002.
Backing means giving additional information to support the warrant. Example if abortion was banned, women would be more responsible and use contraceptives and not turn to abortion in case of an unplanned pregnancy.
The qualifier is the strength of the data. It includes words such as most, usually, or most likely. Example most women who have had an abortion, have felt regret and sadness.
The rebuttal is a counter argument used to present the argument. The “ unlesses” to the warrant. Example abortion is inhuman and it should not be used unless in cases that involve rape.