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Metaliteracy as an Empowering Model for Teaching Mobile and Social Learners

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Metaliteracy as an Empowering Model for Teaching Mobile and Social Learners

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Tom Mackey and Trudi Jacobson presented a collaborative keynote on metaliteracy at The University of Puerto Rico’s Mobile Learning Week event on Monday, March 20 at 10am eastern time. In a presentation entitled “Metaliteracy as an Empowering Model for Teaching Mobile and Social Learners,” Tom and Trudi will explored the theory of metaliteracy while illustrating practical applications that can be applied in a variety of teaching and learning situations. In today’s mobile media environments our learners are continuously engaged with information in a variety of forms using a range of technologies. Learners from around the world are texting, posting, and sharing documents they find online through a multitude of social media spaces and mobile devices. But how much of this information can be trusted?

Tom Mackey and Trudi Jacobson presented a collaborative keynote on metaliteracy at The University of Puerto Rico’s Mobile Learning Week event on Monday, March 20 at 10am eastern time. In a presentation entitled “Metaliteracy as an Empowering Model for Teaching Mobile and Social Learners,” Tom and Trudi will explored the theory of metaliteracy while illustrating practical applications that can be applied in a variety of teaching and learning situations. In today’s mobile media environments our learners are continuously engaged with information in a variety of forms using a range of technologies. Learners from around the world are texting, posting, and sharing documents they find online through a multitude of social media spaces and mobile devices. But how much of this information can be trusted?

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Metaliteracy as an Empowering Model for Teaching Mobile and Social Learners

  1. 1. #metaliteracy
  2. 2. What we’ll talk about • Digital literacy is not enough • Metaliteracy • ACRL Information Literacy Framework • Metaliteracy-related projects – Digital badging system – MOOCs • Q & A 2
  3. 3. DIGITAL LITERACY IS NOT ENOUGH 3
  4. 4. “Our “digital natives” may be able to flit between Facebook and Twitter while simultaneously uploading a selfie to Instagram and texting a friend. But when it comes to evaluating information that flows through social media channels, they are easily duped” (p. 4). 4 Wineburg, Sam and McGrew, Sarah and Breakstone, Joel and Ortega, Teresa. (2016). Evaluating Information: The Cornerstone of Civic Online Reasoning. Stanford Digital Repository. Available at: http://purl.stanford.edu/fv751yt5934
  5. 5. “At present, we worry that democracy is threatened by the ease at which disinformation about civic issues is allowed to spread and flourish” (p. 5). 5 Wineburg, Sam and McGrew, Sarah and Breakstone, Joel and Ortega, Teresa. (2016). Evaluating Information: The Cornerstone of Civic Online Reasoning. Stanford Digital Repository. Available at: http://purl.stanford.edu/fv751yt5934
  6. 6. NMC Horizon Report 2017 Higher Education Edition Selected Trends • Advancing cultures of innovation • Deeper learning approaches Selected Challenges • Improving digital literacy • Integrating formal and informal learning https://www.nmc.org
  7. 7. 7 Information Environment Social
  8. 8. WHAT IS METALITERACY? 8
  9. 9. • “Metaliteracy promotes critical thinking and collaboration in a digital age, providing a comprehensive framework to effectively participate in social media and online communities” (p. 62). • “It is a unified construct that supports the acquisition, production, and sharing of knowledge in collaborative online communities” (p. 62). 9 Thomas P. Mackey and Trudi E. Jacobson “Reframing Information Literacy as a Metaliteracy” College & Research Libraries. January 2011 72:62-78. http://crl.acrl.org/content/72/1/62.full.pdf
  10. 10. • “Information literacy is central to this redefinition because information takes many forms online and is produced and communicated through multiple modalities” (p. 62). • “Metaliteracy challenges traditional skills-based approaches to information literacy by recognizing related literacy types and incorporating emerging technologies” (p. 62-63). 10 Thomas P. Mackey and Trudi E. Jacobson “Reframing Information Literacy as a Metaliteracy” College & Research Libraries. January 2011 72:62-78. http://crl.acrl.org/content/72/1/62.full.pdf
  11. 11. Metaliteracy: Reinventing Information Literacy to Empower Learners (Mackey and Jacobson, 2014). “While literacy is focused on reading and writing, and information literacy has strongly emphasized search and retrieval, metaliteracy is about what happens beyond these abilities to promote the collaborative production and sharing of information” (p. 6).
  12. 12. Metaliteracy: Reinventing Information Literacy to Empower Learners (Mackey and Jacobson, 2014). “The use of the term metaliteracy suggests a way of thinking about one’s own literacy. To be metaliterate requires individuals to understand their existing literacy strengths and areas for improvement and make decisions about their learning” (p. 2).
  13. 13. 13 Metaliteracy Meta- Cognitive Learner Teacher
  14. 14. Metaliteracy in Practice (Jacobson and Mackey, 2016). “Metaliteracy applies to all stages and facets of an individual’s life. It is not limited to the academic realm, nor is it something learned once and for all. Indeed, metaliteracy focuses on adaptability as information environments change, and the critical reflection necessary to recognize new and evolving needs in order to remain adept.” (Preface)
  15. 15. METALITERACY GOALS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES 15
  16. 16. 16 “A majority of U.S. adults – 62 percent – get news on social media.” News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2016 (Gottfried & Shearer, May 26, 2016) Evaluate content critically, including dynamic, online content that changes and evolves, such as articles preprints, blogs, and wikis
  17. 17. 17 “Digital literacy supports the effective use of digital technologies, while metaliteracy emphasizes how we think about things. Metaliterate individuals learn to reflect on how they process information based on their feelings or beliefs.” “How can we learn to reject fake news in the digital world?” (Mackey & Jacobson, The Conversation, December 5, 2016) Evaluate content critically, including dynamic, online content that changes and evolves, such as articles preprints, blogs, and wikis
  18. 18. 18 “How to Spot Fake News” (Kiely and Robertson, November 18, 2016) Assess content from different sources, including dynamic content from social media, critically
  19. 19. 19 “Now you can fact-check Trump’s tweets — in the tweets themselves” (The Washington Post, December 19, 2016) Understand the differing natures of feedback mechanisms and context in traditional and social media platforms
  20. 20. 20 “Journalism Stalwart Condemns ‘Flawed’ Wikipedia” (Journalism.co.uk, December 6, 2005) Place an information source in its context (for example, author’s purpose, format of information, and delivery mode)
  21. 21. Produce Original Content in Multiple Media Formats 21 Educational Uses of Digital Storytelling: http://digitalstorytelling.coe.uh.edu/index.cfm?id=44&cid=44https://www.flickr.com/photos/5chw4r7z/16375687852
  22. 22. Understand Personal Privacy, Information Ethics and Intellectual Property Issues 22 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_dog.jpg
  23. 23. Value user- generated content and critically evaluate contributions made by others: see self as a producer as well as consumer, of information 23 http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/11/11/social-media-update-2016/
  24. 24. 24 Value user- generated content and critically evaluate contributions made by others: see self as a producer as well as consumer, of information
  25. 25. Apply copyright and Creative Commons licensing as appropriate to the creation of original or repurposed information 25 https://www.flickr.com/photos/21907270@N05/2117607887
  26. 26. Determine the value of formal and informal information from various networked sources (scholarly, user-generated, OERs, etc.) 26 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:OER_Logo_Open_Educational_Resources.png
  27. 27. Share Information and Collaborate in Participatory Environments 27 Image: magicatwork “Metaliterate individuals recognize there are ethical considerations involved when sharing information, such as the information must be accurate. But there is more. Metaliteracy asks that individuals understand on a mental and emotional level the potential impact of one’s participation.” “How can we learn to reject fake news in the digital world?” (Mackey & Jacobson, The Conversation, December 5, 2016)
  28. 28. Demonstrate ability to connect learning and research strategies with lifelong learning processes and personal, academic, and professional goals https://www.coursera.org/learn/metaliteracy
  29. 29. Demonstrate self-empowerment through interaction and the presentation of ideas (learners are both students and teachers). https://metaliteracystudent.tumblr.com
  30. 30. Four Domains of Metaliteracy Metacognitive: what learners think about their own thinking—a reflective understanding of how and why they learn, what they do and do not know, their preconceptions, and how to continue to learn). Cognitive: what students should know upon successful completion of learning activities— comprehension, organization, application, evaluation) Affective: changes in learners’ emotions or attitudes through engagement with learning activities) Behavioral: what students should be able to do upon successful completion of learning activities— skills, competencies Mackey and Jacobson (2014) Metaliteracy: Reinventing Information Literacy to Empower Learners
  31. 31. Learner Roles Mackey and Jacobson (2014) Metaliteracy: Reinventing Information Literacy to Empower Learners
  32. 32. 32 Metaliterate Learner Characteristics Adaptable Participatory
  33. 33. THE ACRL FRAMEWORK AND METALITERACY Find the similarities… 33
  34. 34. Metaliteracy in Practice (Jacobson and Mackey, 2016). “The similarities to metaliteracy are striking: metacognition, information creation, and participation in learning communities all reflect elements espoused by metaliteracy when it was originally developed to significantly broaden the conception of information literacy that was commonly accepted, at least in the United States, due to the definition in the ACRL Information Literacy Standards.” (Preface)
  35. 35. 35 http://www.ala.org/acrl/standards/ilframework [Thanks to Craig Gibson for several slides in this section.]
  36. 36. Goals for the Framework • A flexible system of learning information literacy concepts that can be tailored to individual settings • Recognizes the participatory, collaborative information environment: learners as content/knowledge creators, not just consumers (Mackey and Jacobson, “Reframing Information Literacy as a Metaliteracy,” C & RL, 72 (1) 2011, pp. 62-78)
  37. 37. Goals for the Framework • Importance of metacognition (thinking about one’s own thinking) (Mackey and Jacobson, “Reframing Information Literacy as a Metaliteracy,” C & RL, 72 (1) 2011, pp. 62-78) • Recognition of affective factors (dispositions/habits of mind) (Carol Kuhlthau’s work, amongst others)
  38. 38. From Standards to Framework Determine extent of information need Access/Search Evaluate Use/apply Consider ethical/legal/social issues Scholarship Authority Information Creation Value Searching Inquiry
  39. 39. The Framework vs. The Standards • 4 domains addressed: cognitive, affective, behavioral, metacognitive • Learners as information consumers and producers • 6 Frames • Learning outcomes and assessment locally-based • Faculty involvement critical • Emphasis on behavioral and cognitive domains • Learners as information consumers • 5 Standards, 22 Performance Indicators • Learning outcomes specified • Meshes with one-shots Framework Standards
  40. 40. http://pixabay.com/en/puzzle-learn-arrangement-components-210785/
  41. 41. Frame Threshold Concepts Dispositions Knowledge Practices Habits of mind Behaviors demonstrating understanding Underpinning ideas
  42. 42. Threshold Concepts Hofer, Townsend, and Brunetti describe threshold concepts and their criteria, as based on the work of Jan Meyer and Ray Land: …Threshold concepts are the core ideas and processes in any discipline that define the discipline, but that are so ingrained that they often go unspoken or unrecognized by practitioner. They are the central concepts that we want our students to understand and put into practice, that encourage them to think and act like practitioners themselves. (Hofer, Townsend, and Brunetti, 2012, 387- 88) 42
  43. 43. 43 “Threshold concepts reflect the perspective of experts in our profession on the most important concepts in our field, and also provide a developmental trajectory for assisting our students in moving from novice to experts in using and understanding information in a wide variety of contexts.” Why Threshold Concepts?
  44. 44. Threshold Concepts • A passage through a portal or gateway: gaining a new view of a subject landscape • Involve a “rite of passage” to a new level of understanding: a crucial transition • Require movement through a “liminal” space which is challenging, unsettling, disturbing— where the student may become “stuck”
  45. 45. 45 Threshold Concepts Transformative Integrative Irreversible Bounded Troublesome (Hofer, Townsend, and Brunetti, 2012, 387-88), quoting Meyer and Land
  46. 46. Threshold Concepts in Disciplines • Biology: evolution, photosynthesis • Writing/rhetoric studies: audience, purpose, situated practice, genre • Geology: the scale of geologic time • Economics: opportunity cost • Accounting: depreciation • History: no unitary account of the past
  47. 47. Threshold Concepts for IL • Authority is Constructed and Contextual • Information Creation as a Process • Information Has Value • Research as Inquiry • Scholarship as Conversation • Searching as Strategic Exploration
  48. 48. The Challenge Information literacy needs to be integrated into the context of specific disciplines 48
  49. 49. Curriculum Design Considerations • Want students to stay in liminal state long enough to learn (B. Fister) • Design with colleagues • Faculty and librarians identify existing connections • Faculty and librarians co-develop assignments • Position frames strategically across the curriculum • Align threshold concepts with learning outcomes (or create new learning outcomes)
  50. 50. Curriculum Design Considerations • Design learning activities or lessons around threshold concepts • Allow for confusion and uncertainty • Revisit the concept more than once • Revise learning outcomes if necessary Adapted from: “Threshold Concepts: Strategies and Approaches.” Office of Learning and Teaching, Southern Cross University. Available at: http://scu.edu.au/teachinglearning.index.php/92)
  51. 51. Initial Ideas About Assessment Need to avoid assessments that allow mimicry Rather, declarative approach where students represent their knowledge, such as concept maps, portfolios, logs, blogs, diaries (Meyer and Land, 2010)
  52. 52. METALITERACY DIGITAL BADGING SYSTEM Metaliteracybadges.org 52
  53. 53. What is a digital badge? o Record of an accomplishment o Corresponds to knowledge shown or abilities proven o A component in the competency-based education movement o Methods of gauging accomplishment varies o For metaliteracy badges, reading by humans important, given nature of the learning Image Source: Girl Guides of Canada, CC-BY
  54. 54. Image Source: Open Badges Anatomy by Kyle Bowen, CC BY-SA 3.0
  55. 55. Metaliteracy Badges
  56. 56. Metaliteracy Badges
  57. 57. 57 Master Evaluator Content Analysis Search Queries Info. Sources Database Searching Evaluation Points Currency Relevance Authority Accuracy Purpose Packaging & Sharing Format Mode Perpectives & Responses Author's Voice Degrees of Separation Giving Credit Collab- orative Creation Speaking Out Informed Consumer Individual Creation Peer Review User Response Master Evaluator Badge Feedback Mechanisms
  58. 58. 58Metaliteracybadges.org
  59. 59. Preliminary Observations Students • Student engagement dependent upon faculty buy-in • Students put a great deal of themselves into their work • Interest in earning badge – “something unusual to discuss with interviewers” • Potential to earn badge appeared to increase student motivation Faculty • Level of interest varied dependent on context • Willingness to take the time to review • Frequently select quests that cover traditional content • Willingness to embed open content • Sometimes led to additional collaboration with librarians 59
  60. 60. METALITERACY MOOCS 60
  61. 61. MOOC Talk: Paul Prinsloo, UNISA, South Africa Connectivist Metaliteracy MOOC http://metaliteracy.cdlprojects.com
  62. 62. http://metaliteracy.cdlprojects.com MOOC
  63. 63. https://www.coursera.org/course/metaliteracy Coursera Metaliteracy MOOC
  64. 64. 64 Canvas MOOC: Empowering Yourself as a Digital Citizen
  65. 65. Metaliteracy YouTube Channel Metaliteracy Learning Collaborative
  66. 66. Q & A 66
  67. 67. 67 Tom Mackey, Ph.D. Vice Provost for Academic Programs and Professor Office of Academic Affairs SUNY Empire State College Tom.Mackey@esc.edu @TomMackey Trudi Jacobson, M.L.S., M.A. Distinguished Librarian Head, Information Literacy Department University Libraries University at Albany, SUNY Tjacobson@albany.edu @PBKTrudi

Editor's Notes

  • Tom: “Metaliteracy also includes a metacognitive component and openness to format and mode that is less pronounced
    in information literacy” (p. 6).
  • Tom: “Metaliteracy also includes a metacognitive component and openness to format and mode that is less pronounced
    in information literacy” (p. 6).
  • Tom: “Metaliteracy also includes a metacognitive component and openness to format and mode that is less pronounced
    in information literacy” (p. 6).
  • And go beyond factcheck.org--- this is just one example to illustrate the point but of course we need to check multiple sources of information and fact check on our own.
  • As part of the critical thinking process we need to understand the context for information, and the differences in how information is transmitted through traditional sources and social media. In this example the feedback mechanism has been created by The Washington Post to fact-check posts made by DJT and to provide feedback indicating whether or not the information is actually true or false. While this is helpful we also need to build this kind of critical thinking into our own evaluation of information found online.
  • “…in order to ascertain the value of the material for that particular situation“ Understand for example that Wikipedia is developed by a community of users and that while there have been hoaxes such as the infamous John Seigenthaler case, the community was able to correct the false information originally presented, but this required critical thinking and listening to the original victim of this hoax, John Seigenthaler himself and then making the necessary corrections within the context of this open environment.
  • “So, metaliterate individuals don’t just post random thoughts that are not based in truth. They learn that in a public space they have a responsibility to be fair and accurate.”
  • MOOCs as open and lifelong learning; pursuing knowledge and both academic and professional credentials; alternative credentialing; online discussions; peer assessments;
  • Shows a blog created by a student in an information literacy course at the University at Albany, Spring 2017
  • Trudi: “Metaliteracy also includes a metacognitive component and openness to format and mode that is less pronounced
    in information literacy” (p. 6).
  • 5 Standards, 6 Frames
    Quick overview of the larger structures of the two
    The standards were, on the whole, linear, while the framework provides tools to think with, in the words of Gardner Campbell. He says “Conceptual frameworks are not things to do. Conceptual frameworks are tools for understanding, tools to think with” and this is a primary difference from the standards—they were things to do. A framework informs all that one does.
    http://www.gardnercampbell.net/blog1/?p=2703#comments
  • Long have heard that we don’t need to turn students into novice librarians, but actually, the key concepts we understand will only help them
  • Transformative—cause the learner to experience a shift in perspective;
    Integrative—bring together separate concepts (often identified as learning objectives) into a unified whole;
    Irreversible—once grasped, cannot be un-grasped;
    Bounded—may help define the boundaries of a particular discipline, are perhaps unique to the discipline;
    Troublesome—usually difficult or counterintuitive ideas that can cause students to hit a roadblock in their learning.
  • Can enter into the conversation, language
  • This aligns with the deeper learning experience of the Horizon Report, certainly when you compare it to the Standards
  • Trudi: digital badging: a culture of innovation, also a way to integrate formal and informal learning: transcripts reflect the formal, but digital badges can reflect the less formal, they live up to their category of micro-credentials: can tell what competencies badge holders have versus a transcript of course numbers/titles
    Skepticism about badges
    When many people hear the word “badge” they think of this, but it’s really become something so much more.
    Competency based education – libraries and info lit
    Badging fit with metaliteracy

  • Those interested in learning what was involved in earning a badge has this metadata to refer to.
  • Four content badges in the system, along with the master ML badge
    Built on the premise that significant effort is needed to earn a badge
  • old graphics
  • Shows how the badges are being integrated into courses across the curriculum, non-library faculty members valuing the experience enough to take the time to assess their students’ work
  • Stephen Downes and gRSShopper aggretator
  • ×