What is identity? According to Hoare (2002), identity refers to a sense of who one is as a person and as a contributor to society. It is personal coherence or self-sameness through evolving time, social change, and altered role requirements.
THEORIES OF IDENTITY FORMATIONERIK ERIKSON - identity provides one with a sense of well being, a sense of being at home in ones body, a sense of direction in ones life, and a sense of mattering to those who count (Erikson, 1968). - had a coherent view of self - Identification in childhood and identity formation in adolescence - Identity vs. Role confusion
JAMES MARCIA- Canadian developmental psychologist- refined and extended Eriksons model-argues that two distinct parts form an adolescents identity: crisis and commitment
- Identity statuses: identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, identity moratorium, identity achievement.NB: these are not stages.- Ethnic identity
PERSONAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON IDENTITY FORMATION Perception of one’s self Gender identity refers to what it means to be male or female, which is linked to sexual expression, but also concerns broader issues of masculinity and femininity. Sexual identity is a matter of forming an enduring recognition of the meaning of ones sexual feelings, attractions, and behaviors. Cognitive development plays an important role in identity achievement
CONT’D Peers Peer provides a temporary reference point for a developing sense of identity. Friends influence important attitudes, behaviors, and characteristics. Bosma and Kunnen (2001) support the idea that peers can act as models and provide diversity and opportunity.
CONT’D Schools For most adolescents, school is a prominent part of their life. It is here that they relate to and develop relationships with their peers and where they have the opportunity to develop key cognitive skills. Academic learning is the major cause of schooling. But a lot is learnt through the school environment in its hidden curriculum. School also has its personality or style and develops in children what it holds important.
CULTURE AND IDENTITY The term ‘culture’ refers to the language, beliefs, values and norms, customs, dress, diet, roles, knowledge and skills, and all the other things that people learn that make up the ‘way of life’ of any society. Culture is passed on from one generation to the next through the process of socialization.
PARENTS AND IDENTITY FORMATION Familial interactions influence the initial status of identity development (Bosma & Kunnen, 2001). The relationships with one’s family are typically the first an individual experiences, thus providing a foundation for identity formation. Adolescents in the diffusion status are more likely than those in other statuses to feel neglected or rejected by their parents and to be distant from them (Archer, 1994).
FAMILY AND IDENTITY FORMATIONfamily also fosters autonomy and initiative in children when they allow children to make appropriate decisions and engage in new activities
ETHNIC IDENTITY The extent to which one identifies with a particular ethnic group(s). Refers to one’s sense of belonging to an ethnic group and the part of one’s thinking, perceptions, feelings, and behavior that is due to ethnic group membership. The ethnic group tends to be one in which the individual claims heritage (Phinney, 1996).
COMPONENTS OF ETHNIC IDENTITY Ethnic awareness (understanding of one’s own and other groups) Ethnic self-identification (label used for one’s own group) Ethnic attitudes (feelings about own and other groups) Ethnic behaviors (behavior patterns specific to an ethnic group)
THE MEDIA AND IDENTITY FORMATION The media has infiltrated many aspects of our everyday lives from what brand of cereal to eat for breakfast, how to dress, what we should look like and even how to label ourselves racially.
So, if young people have such frequent access and an interest in the media, it is fair to say that their behaviour and their sense of ‘self’ will be influenced to some degree by what they see, read, hear or discover for themselves. Such an influence may include a particular way of behaving or dressing to the kind of music a person chooses to listen to. These are all aspects which go towards constructing a person’s own personal identity.
Social cognition is the thinking that people display about the thoughts, feelings, motives and behaviours of themselves and other people. (Shaffer 2005)
•Humans socialize daily and that willhelp them to understand the peoplearound them (beliefs, values and goals)•. People are likely to be harmoniouslyif we know what our social partners arethinking or feeling and can predict howthey are likely to behave. (Heyman &Gelman, 1998 as cited in Shaffer 2005)
AGE TRENDS IN PERSON PERCEPTION•Based on the age of the child he/she willcharacterize people around them in differentmanner•Research suggest that by age 5-6 childrenare able to think about traits in apsychological manner
•Children in middle childhood usebehavioural comparisons: formingimpressions of others by comparing andcontrasting their overt behaviour
By age 14-16 adolescence are able tounderstand that various situational factorscan affect a person’s character (Damon &Hart, 1988 as cited in Shaffer 2005)
THEORIES OF SOCIAL COGNITIONCognitive Developmental Theory (JeanPiaget)•Children’s view of themselves is based onthe level of cognitive development•As a child gets older their cognitive skillswill develop into more high order thinking
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development•Sensorimotor (birth-2 years)•Preoperational (2-7 years)•Concrete Operational (7-11 years)•Formal Operational (11-the end of the lifespan)
Selman’s Role-Taking Theory Having the understanding of another person’s perspective and understand their thoughts, feelings, intentions and behaviours.
STAGES OF ROLE-TAKING 0. Egocentric or undifferentiated perspective (3-6 years old) 1. Social-informational role taking (6-8 years old) 2. Self-reflective role taking (8-10 years old)
3. Mutual role taking (10-12 years old) 4.Social role taking (12-15 years old)
SOCIAL INFLUENCES ON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND ROLE TAKING Thereare various factors that help to contribute to a development in cognition and role taking skills