Lesson 1
One of areas below will appear in the exam. We will need to prepare for ALL areas.     Gender     Age     Ethnicity   ...
Your marks for this question are broken down into threecategories.Explanation/analysis/argument (20 marks)Use of example...
We will look at two types of representation1.Representing as Re-presenting1.Who does the re-presenting? (Richard Dyer1985)
 Mimetic theory of representation  Reflects reality  Window to the world  Transparent  Unmediated            What doe...
1. Why are some interpretations (re-   presentations) of the world made over   others?2. What are the ranges of representa...
1. How the re-presentations of reality are   never innocent/neutral.2. How representations are political3. How they always...
Predominantly white, middleaged, middle class men  Mark Thompson Dir Gen BBC –   2004 (replaced Greg Dyke)  Adam Crozier...
 Women still under represented in the audio-  visual industry   38% ‘ethnic minorities’   7% total audio-visual workfo...
 What is the definition of a stereotype?A stereotype is a fixed/oversimplified  perspective on an individual.
Women are often seen as weak and vulnerable. They  mainly seem to show their emotional side as well as  having relationshi...
Men are often presented as the overpowering, dominant character.
 Gender  Femininity  Masculinity
 Dominant males Subservient females Masculine ‘action’ Lack of emotion ‘Serious’ storylines Romance controlled Patr...
 Female interaction Males as ‘partners’ Relationship issues Emotive storylines Shared feminine  identity Narrative o...
 Female ensemble dramas Widows Band of Gold Sex and the City Desperate Housewives Fat Friends Bad Girls
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVaYcM4V
 Female friendship Issues that effect  women Sex/sexuality Career women Female point of view
Representations of Masculinityin The Sopranos
   Created by David    Chase   HBO 1999-2007   Frequently hailed the    ‘Best ever drama’   Who has seen it?
 Explore the representations of masculinity in The  Sopranos   How is representations in The Sopranos similar or    diff...
   The Sopranos can be seen as    drawing on the generic    conventions and history of the    GANGSTER FILM of cinema –su...
   Sopranos follows the    typical representation of    the masculine within the    ‘male-centred’ gangster    film but a...
   Lack of respect/security       Shifts to mob fathers way        of being as head of the        ‘family’ business     ...
Laura Mulvey
Laura Mulvey – Male GazeInfluenced    by Freud & Jacques Lucan,Mulvey sees the representation of womanin film & literatur...
 To   look is seen as active  She believed the camera acted as a male and   everything we see is from a male point of view
   Men play active roles    which drive the narrative   Women play passive    roles and are seen as    erotic objects wh...
 Bimbo Female’s physical  attractions such as  figure and breasts to  overpower the male Easy House wife Mother Inte...
 Two distinct modes of the male gaze of this era:  voyeuristic and fetishistic Mulvey argued that women where given two ...
 Where women had important roles they were far more likely to be shown as…    frightened    in need of protection and d...
 As womens roles change in society so does media  representation. Women are still objectified but also likely to be…    ...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-czwy-aVbbU
 Uma  Thurman represented as powerful  and dominant and independent Sword stands in for and castrates phallus Adopts ma...
   The job of seeking revenge family is given to the    female character thus conforming to stereotypes    where women ar...
Vs              Vs     Evidence of the      female gaze?
Hatred or dislike to women/females.
 Gene    Hunt (TV                                   Detective from                                   Life on Mars,       ...
   How would you define the term misogyny based on what you have just    seen?Negative conception towards women. Women ca...
   Find examples of both male and female characters in    TV Dramas that follow stereotypes and ones that    challenge st...
Gender
Gender
Gender
Gender
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Gender

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Gender

  1. 1. Lesson 1
  2. 2. One of areas below will appear in the exam. We will need to prepare for ALL areas.  Gender  Age  Ethnicity  Sexuality  Class and status  Physical ability/disability  Regional identity
  3. 3. Your marks for this question are broken down into threecategories.Explanation/analysis/argument (20 marks)Use of examples (20 marks)Use of terminology (10 marks)
  4. 4. We will look at two types of representation1.Representing as Re-presenting1.Who does the re-presenting? (Richard Dyer1985)
  5. 5.  Mimetic theory of representation  Reflects reality  Window to the world  Transparent  Unmediated What does this term mean? What does this term mean?
  6. 6. 1. Why are some interpretations (re- presentations) of the world made over others?2. What are the ranges of representation in Western cultures?
  7. 7. 1. How the re-presentations of reality are never innocent/neutral.2. How representations are political3. How they always reflect the producer’s beliefs and values (those doing the re- presenting)
  8. 8. Predominantly white, middleaged, middle class men  Mark Thompson Dir Gen BBC – 2004 (replaced Greg Dyke)  Adam Crozier – Chief Exec ITV - 2010 (replaced Michael Grade)  David Abraham – Chief Exec CH4 - Jan 2010- (replaced Andy Duncan)  Dawn Airey Chair and Chief Exec of CH5 sanding down in 2010.
  9. 9.  Women still under represented in the audio- visual industry  38% ‘ethnic minorities’  7% total audio-visual workforce Broadcast TV 9.1% 24% cinema cleaners
  10. 10.  What is the definition of a stereotype?A stereotype is a fixed/oversimplified perspective on an individual.
  11. 11. Women are often seen as weak and vulnerable. They mainly seem to show their emotional side as well as having relationship problems. Not only this, but they are generally more often and are quite frequently portrayed as the ‘dumb blonde’ .
  12. 12. Men are often presented as the overpowering, dominant character.
  13. 13.  Gender  Femininity  Masculinity
  14. 14.  Dominant males Subservient females Masculine ‘action’ Lack of emotion ‘Serious’ storylines Romance controlled Patriarchal ideology (narrative closure) Male heroes
  15. 15.  Female interaction Males as ‘partners’ Relationship issues Emotive storylines Shared feminine identity Narrative openness Confirmation of patriarchial ideology
  16. 16.  Female ensemble dramas Widows Band of Gold Sex and the City Desperate Housewives Fat Friends Bad Girls
  17. 17.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVaYcM4V
  18. 18.  Female friendship Issues that effect women Sex/sexuality Career women Female point of view
  19. 19. Representations of Masculinityin The Sopranos
  20. 20.  Created by David Chase HBO 1999-2007 Frequently hailed the ‘Best ever drama’ Who has seen it?
  21. 21.  Explore the representations of masculinity in The Sopranos  How is representations in The Sopranos similar or different to previous representations of masculinity in traditional masculine gangster films/ crime dramas?  How does The Sopranos draw on the conventions of traditional feminine texts? Here is a clip to get you started. Use Youtube to find more if y
  22. 22.  The Sopranos can be seen as drawing on the generic conventions and history of the GANGSTER FILM of cinema –such as The Godfather etc Gangster Film  The Godfather (Coppola 1972)  Scarface (De Palma 1983)  Goodfellas (Scorsese 1990)  Casino (Scorsese 1995) Indeed like previous constructions of masculinity within the gangster film the mob boss of Tony Soprano is represented as a violent, macho, aggressive man
  23. 23.  Sopranos follows the typical representation of the masculine within the ‘male-centred’ gangster film but also male crime series of TV  Dominant males  Subservient females  Physical action  Lack of emotion  Romance controlled  Male heroes
  24. 24.  Lack of respect/security  Shifts to mob fathers way of being as head of the ‘family’ business  Shifts to fathers positioning in relation to his own personal familyAcross his PUBLIC and PRIVATE life Tony feels the MOVEMENT AWAY fromTRADITIONAL RULES and NORMS that govern his life and SECURED his POSITION asHEAD of both FAMILIESThe old rules of DUTY, HONOUR and RESPECT for those in positions of authority haveeroded at workThe tradition of respecting your FATHER & HUSBAND as BREADWINNER have also beeneroded with women
  25. 25. Laura Mulvey
  26. 26. Laura Mulvey – Male GazeInfluenced by Freud & Jacques Lucan,Mulvey sees the representation of womanin film & literature (and therefore society ingeneral) as being dominated by a malepoint of view. Her belief is that the world isa patriarchy and that men have the‘active’ roles and woman ‘passive’
  27. 27.  To look is seen as active  She believed the camera acted as a male and everything we see is from a male point of view
  28. 28.  Men play active roles which drive the narrative Women play passive roles and are seen as erotic objects which slow the narrative Men far outnumber women Female roles are sidelined Lead roles for women scarce
  29. 29.  Bimbo Female’s physical attractions such as figure and breasts to overpower the male Easy House wife Mother Intelligent yet willing to settle down http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J0J9FdN8oqA
  30. 30.  Two distinct modes of the male gaze of this era: voyeuristic and fetishistic Mulvey argued that women where given two characters types - sexually active female or the powerless female Films presented images of women that were produced simply for the gratification of male viewers Various studies in the 1970s found men to be the dominant characters and decision makers in film and TV production http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfL09c4cw2I
  31. 31.  Where women had important roles they were far more likely to be shown as…  frightened  in need of protection and direction  offering support to the male lead character(s)  not independent or self driven  generally weaker  still objectified sexually“Women, in any fully human form, have almost completely been left out of film….” L Mulvey
  32. 32.  As womens roles change in society so does media representation. Women are still objectified but also likely to be…  Career driven  Intelligent  Confident  Empowered  Able (violent)Remember changes may be made cynically and in order to make money rather than change ideologies How many female action stars who are not attractive?
  33. 33. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-czwy-aVbbU
  34. 34.  Uma Thurman represented as powerful and dominant and independent Sword stands in for and castrates phallus Adopts male characteristics of aggression Not masculinised yet in masculine roles Use of low angles, and a masculine performance
  35. 35.  The job of seeking revenge family is given to the female character thus conforming to stereotypes where women are seen to be possessed with family and emotional Tight outfit allows objectification Voyeuristic pleasures by watching Thurman on her killing rampage Remember male director/industry may still mean male ideologies
  36. 36. Vs Vs Evidence of the female gaze?
  37. 37. Hatred or dislike to women/females.
  38. 38.  Gene Hunt (TV Detective from Life on Mars, set in 1970’s Britain) talking about politics:THERE WILL NEVER BE A WOMAN PRIME MINISTER AS LONG AS IHAVE A HOLE UP MY A**E.
  39. 39.  How would you define the term misogyny based on what you have just seen?Negative conception towards women. Women can portray Misogyny. Feminism and Misogyny coincide each other. Can you think of any other examples of misogyny that you may have seen in any media text or simply experienced in everyday life? Misogyny – the contempt or hatred of women and girls
  40. 40.  Find examples of both male and female characters in TV Dramas that follow stereotypes and ones that challenge stereotypes. Using images to support and discuss how they have been represented through clothing, location, narrative, dialogue, camera angle etc. Present this in your blog, on a powerpoint or in a short movie like the bond example you saw. Link you answers to Mulvey’s Theory

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