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Vietnam War Presentation for Mr. Clowes U.S. History Class

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The vietnam war new

  1. 1. The Vietnam War<br />Cold War Policies Pushes<br /> the United States to the Far East<br />
  2. 2. Origins of the Conflict <br />Ho Chi Mihn & The Vietminh<br />World War II forces Japan to Leave Vietnam -1940<br />Mihn Declares Vietnam an Independent Country<br />September 2nd, 1945 <br />Vietnam used to be a French Colony <br />
  3. 3. Opportunity: France<br />France Makes a Move<br />1945 - French troops move back to Vietnam <br />Regain Control of S. Vietnam<br />Ho Chi Mihn Vows to fight from the North and regain control in South Vietnam<br />Goal to knock France out of South Vietnam<br />
  4. 4. U.S. Involvement<br />Warning Signs<br />1940s / 1950s – U.S. Military Advisors Warn Government to stay away from conflict<br />President Truman sends $15 Million to France to aid their attempt to regain control<br />Total financial aid = $1Billion<br />Ironic????<br />U.S. supported Ho Chi Minh during WWII to keep Japan out of Vietnam<br />Once WWII over, views him as a Communist aggressor <br />
  5. 5. President Eisenhower and the “Domino Theory”<br />Ike on Vietnam<br />1954 Eisenhower declares:<br />“You have a row of dominoes set up…You knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over quickly”<br />He believes Ho Chi Minh is too close to Communism<br />* If Vietnam falls to Minh and Communism, Eisenhower believes more countries in the far east will also fall. <br />
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  8. 8. Chance at Diplomacy<br />Geneva Accords<br />France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S., China, Laos, Cambodia meet the Vietnihmn and South Vietnamese in Geneva, Switzerland <br />Discuss diplomatic solution to problems<br />Geneva Accords<br />Divides Vietnam at 17th Parallel<br />North Capitol – Hanoi / South Capitol – Saigon<br />Unify with Democratic Style Election in 1956<br />
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  10. 10. Early U.S. Involvement<br />Economic Support to South Vietnam<br />Ngo Dinh Diem <br />Promises clean, stable, democratic government<br />In exchange he gets funding from the U.S.<br />Diem drops the ball<br />Does not redistribute land to peasants<br />Persecutes Buddhists<br />Catholic Beliefs / No room for Buddhist thought<br />
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  12. 12. Viet Cong and Ho Chi Minh<br />Vietcong<br />Southern Liberation group with Communist roots<br />Ho Chi Minh Supports with aid / weapons<br />Ho Chi Minh Trail / Guerilla Warfare – Supply line<br />JKF and Vietnam<br />1963: 16,000 U.S. Army Personnel in Vietnam<br />Diem’s popularity plummets<br />Diem is Assassinated by U.S. Forces<br />U.S. feels South Vietnam could not remain stable <br />
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  14. 14. President Johnson’s Vietnam<br />Before JFK’s Death: “In the final analysis, it’s their war.”<br />Johnson’s Escalation<br />Does not want to be “soft” on communism<br />Believes a South Vietnam takeover = appeasement<br />Johnson’s policies now lean towards long conflict<br />
  15. 15. Gulf of Tonkin<br />Situation<br />1964- North Vietnamese patrol boat fires a torpedo at a United States’ destroyer – USS Maddox<br />Maddox returns fire and inflicts heavy damage<br />Days later Maddox returns – Bad Visibility and Weather<br />Crew Reports that Vietnamese ships fired another torpedo<br />Later report that they neither saw nor heard any fire<br />Johnson Orders Air Strikes on North Vietnam<br />Congress approves “Gulf of Tonkin Resolution” <br />Not a declaration of War but gives Johnson a lot of military power in Vietnam <br />
  16. 16. Results of Tonkin Resolution<br />Hidden from American Public<br />Johnson did not tell the American Public he was secretly launching raids on the N. Vietnam <br />The Maddox was in Tonkin to obtain information<br />Johnson had prepared for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution months beforehand<br />Waiting for an opportunity to push through Congress<br />February 1965 – Johnson Uses Powers<br />“Operation Rolling Thunder” – First sustained bombing mission<br />June, 1965 – 50,000 U.S. Soldiers in Vietnam – Now America’s War<br />
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  18. 18. Johnson Fully Commits the United States<br />1964 Presidential Campaign <br />Johnson wins election claiming he was:<br /> “not about to send American boys 9 or 10 thousand miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves”<br />Early in term beings sending thousands of U.S. troops to fight along side S. Vietnamese troops<br />Many Americans support Johnson because they believe that he is attempting to stop the spread of communism worldwide<br />
  19. 19. War Tactics<br />Vietcong Tactics: Guerilla Warfare<br />Tunnel Systems / Easy “hit and run” opportunities<br />Mines / Punji Sticks / Traps <br />Hidden Enemy<br />United States Tactics: Intimidation<br />Destroy Moral – Outnumber<br />Body Counts<br />Win Hearts and minds<br />Napalm / Agent Orange <br />
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  21. 21. Troop Morale<br />Troop Morale Decreases<br />Frustrations<br />Brutal Conditions Jungle / Heat<br />Rice Patties <br />Invisible Enemies <br />Search and Destroy<br />Drugs<br />Lack of Support from Government / American Public<br />
  22. 22. Problems At Home<br />Great Society<br />War grows costly as more troops are committed<br />Johnson asks for tax increase<br />Result is a cut in funding for social programs<br />Johnson's early views of domestic reform now fading away<br />
  23. 23. War Looses Popularity<br />War Looses Ratings<br />Combat footage shown on nightly news<br />Body bags and battle scenes shown on T.V.<br />16,000 Americans Killed from 1961- 1967<br />Pictures begin to contradict administrations optimistic war views.<br />Johnson looses credibility – Message not matching news reports<br />American Public Opinion Beginning to Shift<br />
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  26. 26. Nation Divided<br />Vietnam War Draft:<br />All men age 18 must register<br />Pre-Draft Screening / Medical Conditions<br />18-26 eligible for military service<br />Easily Manipulated Draft<br />Medical exemptions / Enroll – Enlist <br />Low Class War<br />
  27. 27. Minorities in Vietnam<br />African Americans<br />Serve in disproportionate numbers of combat troops<br />20% of Deaths / 10% of U.S. Population<br />Martin Luther King Jr.<br />Racism within platoons <br />
  28. 28. Females In Vietnam<br />Women in War<br />1960s  Women not allowed in Vietnam – combat<br />10,000 Women served as military nurses<br />
  29. 29. The War Intensifies<br />1968  Tet Offensive<br />Simultaneous attacks throughout S. Vietnam<br />American Troops had dominated war to this point<br />Funerals for victims served as supply lines<br />100 Cities Attacked<br />Costly Push<br />32,000 Vietcong Soldiers Killed <br />3,000 American Troops<br />
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  31. 31. Effects of the Tet Offensive<br />Psychological / Social Problems<br />William Westmoreland<br />Calls Tet “well-laid” plans afoul”. <br />Greatly Shook the American Public <br />Close to Defeat<br />Support for War Pre – Tet  56 % <br />Support for War Post Tet  40%<br />Walter Cronkite:“more certain than ever that the bloody experience of Vietnam is to end in a stalemate.”<br />Johnsons Support for War is Plummeting <br />
  32. 32. 1968<br />Events of 1968<br />Tet Offensive<br />Lyndon Johnson does not seek nomination<br />Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.<br />Robert Kennedy Assassinated<br /> - L.A. Victory Speech <br /> - Sirhan Sirhan <br />5) Protests Begin<br />6) Richard Nixon Elected <br />
  33. 33. Assassination of Robert Kennedy<br />
  34. 34. Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.<br />
  35. 35. Vietnam War Protest<br />
  36. 36. Election of Richard Nixon<br />
  37. 37. Nixon’s Vietnam Policy<br />How to end Vietnam?<br />Pull Troops Out of Vietnam<br />1) 1969 Henry Kissinger Vietnamization <br />1969  25,000 Troops Return Home<br />1972  500,000 to 25,000<br />2) Peace with Honor<br />Government – Bombing Campaign - <br />