Dr. THULASI KRISHNA. K
Dept. of Management Studies,
MITS, Madanapalle, A.P.
In India, the system of Accounting was practiced centuries
ago as it is clear from the book named “Artha sasthra”
written by Koutilya, Chandra Gupta’s minister.
Kautilya’s Arthshastra covers accounting principles and
standards, role and responsibilities of accountants and
auditors, the methodology of accounting, auditing
and fraud risk management, and the role of ethics in
managing financial activities.
The modern system of accounting based on the principles
of double entry system owes its origin to ‘Fra Luca Pacioli’
(Father of Accounting) who first published the principles
of double entry system in 1494 at Venice in Italy.
Accounting is a discipline which records, classifies,
summarises and interprets financial information about the
activities of a concern so that intelligent decisions can be
made about the concern.
The art of recording, classifying, and summarizing in a
significant manner and in terms of money, transactions
and events which are, in part at least, of financial character,
and interpreting the results thereof.
……. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants
Accounting is a process;
It is an art;
It is a means and not an end;
It deals with financial information and transactions; and
It is an information system
To keep a systematic record of business transactions;
To ascertain the results of the operation;
To determine the financial position of the business;
To portray the liquidity position;
To protect business properties;
To facilitate rational decision – making; and
To satisfy the requirements of law:
It keeps a systematic permanent written record of
business transactions of the organization.
It maintains a record of assets and liabilities.
It provides information for meeting various legal
requirements such as I.T returns, Sales tax returns, etc.
It communicates the results of the business to the various
categories of persons such as owners, creditors, Govt., etc.
It protects the property of the business.
It helps in managerial decision making.
It helps in optimum utilisation of resources.
Maintaining systematic records
Meeting legal requirements
Protecting and safeguarding business assets
Facilitates rational decision-making
Communicating and reporting
Comparison of results
• Deals with the preparation of financial
statements to provide information to the
• Provides the detailed cost information
that management needs to control
current operations and plan for the
• Deals with the presentation of
accounting information is such a way as
to assist management in the creation of
policy and the day-to-day operation of an