Introduction to corrosion

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An introductory presentation giving the definition, impact, and cost of corrosion.

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Introduction to corrosion

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO CORROSION PROF T. K. G. NAMBOODHIRI CORROSION CONSULTANT [(Retd) Professor, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Institute of Technology, BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY]
  2. 2. DEFINITION <ul><li>Destruction or deterioration of materials due to their reaction with environment. Materials may be metals & alloys or non-metals like ceramics, plastics, rubber. Environments may be gaseous, liquid, or solid. </li></ul><ul><li>For metals, corrosion may be thought of as ‘Extractive metallurgy in reverse’. </li></ul>
  3. 3. CORROSION- EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY IN REVERSE
  4. 5. Some areas affected by corrosion
  5. 6. Areas affected by corrosion <ul><li>• Infrastructure, including building structures (onshore and offshore), </li></ul><ul><li>transportation (roads, bridges, and tunnels), water distribution mains, </li></ul><ul><li>energy distribution (electricity, gas, and oil), and communication systems </li></ul><ul><li>and devices. </li></ul><ul><li>• Transport methods, including railways, automotive (materials technology, </li></ul><ul><li>coating technology, clean exhaust technology by catalysts or </li></ul><ul><li>filters), aerospace, and ships (diesel engines). </li></ul><ul><li>• Energy production and storage, including fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, </li></ul><ul><li>biomass fuels, alternative energy sources, and hydrogen technology. </li></ul><ul><li>• Raw materials, including mining, metallurgy, recycling, and oil & gas for </li></ul><ul><li>non-energy use. </li></ul><ul><li>• Production technologies in refineries, petrochemistry, chemistry, pulp & </li></ul><ul><li>paper, and electronics. </li></ul><ul><li>• Food, including agriculture, food production technologies, and water </li></ul><ul><li>cleanliness and availability. </li></ul><ul><li>• Health, including implant materials and technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>• Safety and social integrity. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge dissemination and technology transfer </li></ul>
  6. 7. General Corrosion Examples
  7. 8. Collapse of Berlin Congress Hall in 1980
  8. 10. IMPACT OF CORROSION
  9. 11. IMPACT ON SAFETY
  10. 12. COST OF CORROSION <ul><li>Annual loss due to corrosion is estimated to be 3 to 5 % of GNP, about Rs.700000 crores </li></ul><ul><li>Direct & Indirect losses </li></ul><ul><li>Direct loss: Material cost, maintenance cost, over-design, use of costly material </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect losses: Plant shutdown & loss of production, contamination of products, loss of valuable products due to leakage etc, liability in accidents </li></ul>
  11. 13. DIRECT COSTS <ul><li>Material loss </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of replacement/repair </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to use otherwise desirable materials </li></ul><ul><li>Over-design to allow for corrosion. </li></ul>
  12. 14. INDIRECT COSTS <ul><li>Loss of appearance-Automobiles, buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of production due to plant shut down </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of valuable product-Leakage, contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of valuable minerals-Depletion of natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of safety & reliability. </li></ul><ul><li>Product liability. </li></ul>
  13. 15. COST OF CORROSION (U. S. A) <ul><li>The diagram shows the extrapolated total cost of corrosion in the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Total cost: $ 276 Billion (3.1 % of GDP) </li></ul><ul><li>Year: 1998 </li></ul>
  14. 16. WHY STUDY CORROSION? <ul><li>Every one using materials of any sort must have a basic understanding of corrosion in order to protect them from corrosion. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers, who design, construct, and use large amounts of structural materials, must especially be aware of this natural process so that they can take preventive action. </li></ul><ul><li>Saving the huge annual loss due to corrosion as well as ensuring the safety and reliability of the materials/structures/machines under their charge requires understanding of corrosion. </li></ul>

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