Kootenay Lake School District #8
Nelson, British Columbia
Trafalgar Middle School PAC January 2014
Todd Kettner, Ph.D. , R...
We want our kids to:
Learn well
Be socially competent
Be successful in life
Other wishes for their lives?
Copyright 2014 T...
Anxiety gets in the way of…
Learning
The Prevalence of Anxiety Among Middle and
Secondary School Students in Canada L.Tramonte & D.
Willms. Canadian Journal of...
Social Competence
Merkingas, Burstein, Swanson, et. al.
Journal of the American Academy of
Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2-1
Oct:49 (10):98...
Lifelong Success
Prevalence of anxiety disorders
in children and adolescents

10% to 20%
Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adol...
SD8 Counsellors: Most Important Issues
Dealt with in Schools (weighted)
All Others
13%

[CATEGO
RY
NAME]
[PERCEN
TAGE]

Ac...
Physical Symptoms
Physical Symptoms
Crying

Muscle tension

Headaches

Stomach aches

Nail biting

Picking at skin

Fidgetiness

Increased h...
Cognitive Symptoms
Cognitive Symptoms
Difficulty concentrating
Fear of illness – “I must be having a heart attack”
Fear of losing it – “I’m g...
Behavioural Symptoms
Behavioural Symptoms
Avoidance
School refusal
Skipping class
Dropping out of sports
Alcohol, pot, other drugs to avoid anx...
Thoughts

Actions

Emotions
Managing our anxiety and depression AND improving our physical health outcomes
Emotional Contagion
Emotional Contagion (Studies in Emotion and Social
Interaction). Hatfield, Cacioppo & Rapson. 1993.
Po...
Emotional Contagion
Anxiety and Stress
Strategies
Modelling and Rehearsal
Physical Exercise
Clear and Accurate Information
Yerkes Dodson Law

Copyright 2013 Todd Kettner, Ph.D. 250-505-7019
Graduated Mastery

Staircase of Success
Anxiety BC’s Excellent Website
Resources. Results. Relief.
Information for
Children, Teens, Parents, and Adults
http://www...
Resources for Teachers:
Fostering Resilience in Students
with Mental Health Issues
http://keltymentalhealth.ca/education
Handouts for:
Relaxed Breathing
Building Social Confidence
Overcoming Fears
Progressive Muscle Relaxation
http://youth.anx...
Empirically Validated Quick
Screening Measures for:
Depression
Anxiety
Stress
Alcohol Use
Social Anxiety
Drug Use
http://w...
Resilience. Mastery. Success.
Photos credits (mostly from Flickr)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Anxious Teen by Holly
Lear...
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How Does Anxiety Impact Students? How to Build Resilience.

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Increasing parental awareness of prevalence of anxiety in children and youth. Strategies for parents and teachers to recognize signs of anxiety in order to provide strategies that will build resilience.

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  • The Prevalence of Anxiety Among Middle and Secondary School Students in CanadaLucia Tramonte, PhD,1 Doug Willms, PhD2Can J Public Health 2010;101(Suppl. 3):S19-S22.ABSTRACTObjectives: Adolescents’ anxiety is associated with individual and contextual characteristics. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of anxiety among adolescent youth in grades 6 to 12 and determine whether it is related to socio-economic status and perceptions of learning skills and challenges.Methods: Nationally representative cross-sectional data from the Tell Them From Me survey – Fall 2008 assessment – were used for this study. Item response theory estimates and a cut-off point for anxiety were developed from six Likert items pertaining to anxiety. Csikszentmihalyi’s theory of flow was applied to create four different combinations of learning processes and students’ skills.Results: Females had a higher prevalence of anxiety than males in both middle and secondary schools. The prevalence of anxiety did not varysubstantially among schools for either middle or secondary schools. Less than one half of Canadian students can be considered “in flow”, that is, feeling confident in their skills and challenged in their classes. Students who lacked confidence in their skills were nearly twice as likely to experience anxiety.Conclusion: The relation between students’ skills, the challenges presented to them at school and anxiety problems deserves attention by parents and school staff. Further research could examine the relationship between direct assessments of students’ skills and measures of teaching practices andschool policies.Key words: Anxiety; adolescents; skills; learning challenge; flow; TTFM survey; schoolsCan J Public Health 2010;101(Suppl. 3):S19-S22.
  • “An epidemiologically selected sample of 776 young people living in upstate New York received DSM-based psychiatric assessments in 1983, 1985, and 1992 using structured interviews…In simple logistic models, adolescent anxiety or depressive disorders predicted an approximate 2- to 3-fold increased risk for adulthood anxiety or depressive disorders.”Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998 Jan;55(1):56-64.The risk for early-adulthood anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders.Pine DS, Cohen P, Gurley D, Brook J, Ma Y.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9435761/ Extrapolating Canadian annual cost of anxiety disorders (direct and indirect) at $65 Billion from DuPont, R. L., DuPont, C. M. & Rice, D. P. (2002). Economic costs of anxiety disorders. In D. J. Stein & E. Hollander (Eds.). Textbook of Anxiety Disorders. AmericanPsychiatric Publishing: Washington, D.C. referenced in Invited Submission to the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology, prepared by the Anxiety Disorders Association of Canada/AssociationCanadienne des Troubles Anxieux, June 2003. http://www.anxietycanada.ca/english/pdf/kirby.pdf This submission also states that anxiety disorders are the most common mental health problems among Canadians with a 12% one year prevalence and >25% lifetime prevalence.
  • PsychiatrClin North Am. 2009 September; 32(3): 483–524. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2009.06.002Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Issues and Implications for DSM-VKatjaBeesdo, PhD,a,*Susanne Knappe, Dipl-Psych,a and Daniel S. Pine, MDbhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3018839/Prevalence was found to be 15 to 20%. Other studies have shown somewhat lower prevalence rates.
  • CryingMuscle tensionHeadachesStomach achesNail bitingPicking at skinFidgetinessIncreased heart rateSweatingShallow breathingDizzinessFatigueDisrupted sleepFeeling of chokingFeeling nauseasTightness in chestTremblingNumbness or tingling sensationsExtreme anxiety can lead to hair loss, trichotillomania, rashes
  • Difficulty concentratingFear of illness – “I must be having a heart attack”Fear of losing it – “I’m going crazy”Fear of abandonment – “My girlfriend might leave me”Fear of failure – “I’m going to flunk the exam”Fear of rejection – “Nobody will like me at Trafalgar”Fear of fear – “I know I’ll have a panic attack if I go the Bombers basketball game”Fear of criticism – “My teacher won’t like the story I wrote.” “My parents will think the money they spent on my new hockey equipment was a complete waste”Fear of success – “I don’t want to try out for choir because my friends think I have a good voice and if I made it, then I’d have to be on stage”Fear of death Fear of lossFear of catastrophy if something isn’t in the right order or sequence
  • AVOIDANCESchool refusalSkipping classDropping out of sportsAlcohol, pot, other drugs to avoid anxiety or other challenging emotions“Losing homework”Not wanting friends overRefusal of overnights at friends, relatives, school trips, summer campsTantrumsYellingSometimes even physical aggression – “had to drag him kicking and screaming”
  • Emotional Contagion (Studies in Emotion and Social Interaction) [Paperback] Elaine Hatfield , John T. CacioppoRichard L. Rapson 1993Popularized in Malcolm Gladwell’s 2002 Bestseller “The Tipping Point.”Examples: EMTs and ER nurses. Teachers who talk quieter and more calmly in order to “infect” their loud and boisterous students with their calm and quiet.
  • Practice in groups mixed of at least one elementary, one middle, one high school.
  • How Does Anxiety Impact Students? How to Build Resilience.

    1. 1. Kootenay Lake School District #8 Nelson, British Columbia Trafalgar Middle School PAC January 2014 Todd Kettner, Ph.D. , Registered Psychologist Building Resilience & Confidence Strategies to help our youth manage stress, worry and anxiety
    2. 2. We want our kids to: Learn well Be socially competent Be successful in life Other wishes for their lives? Copyright 2014 Todd Kettner, Ph.D. 250-505-7019
    3. 3. Anxiety gets in the way of…
    4. 4. Learning
    5. 5. The Prevalence of Anxiety Among Middle and Secondary School Students in Canada L.Tramonte & D. Willms. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2010;101(Suppl. 3):S19-S22. Less than one half of Canadian students can be considered “in flow.” That is, < 50% of students feel confident in their skills and challenged in their classes. Students who lacked confidence in their skills were nearly twice as likely to experience anxiety.
    6. 6. Social Competence
    7. 7. Merkingas, Burstein, Swanson, et. al. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2-1 Oct:49 (10):980-989. 5.5% of 13 to 18 year olds will have Social Anxiety (a subtype of anxiety) during their teens.
    8. 8. Lifelong Success
    9. 9. Prevalence of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents 10% to 20% Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Issues and Implications for DSM-V. Besdoo, Knappe, and Pine. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3018839/ Psychiatry in Clinical Practice North America. 2009 September: 32(3); 483-524. Prevalence was found to be 15 to 20%. Note: Other studies have shown somewhat lower prevalence rates.
    10. 10. SD8 Counsellors: Most Important Issues Dealt with in Schools (weighted) All Others 13% [CATEGO RY NAME] [PERCEN TAGE] Academic Stress 5% Attendance 6% Depression 8% Disruptive Behaviors 14% Peer Interactions 14%
    11. 11. Physical Symptoms
    12. 12. Physical Symptoms Crying Muscle tension Headaches Stomach aches Nail biting Picking at skin Fidgetiness Increased heart rate Sweating Shallow breathing Dizziness Fatigue Disrupted sleep Feeling of choking Feeling nauseas Tightness in chest Trembling Numbness Tingling sensations Extreme anxiety can lead to hair loss, trichotillomania, rashes
    13. 13. Cognitive Symptoms
    14. 14. Cognitive Symptoms Difficulty concentrating Fear of illness – “I must be having a heart attack” Fear of losing it – “I’m going crazy” Fear of abandonment – “My girlfriend might leave me” Fear of failure – “I’m going to flunk the exam” Fear of rejection – “Nobody will like me at Trafalgar” Fear of fear – “I know I’ll have a panic attack if I go the Bombers basketball game” Fear of criticism – “My teacher won’t like the story I wrote.” “My parents will think the money they spent on my new hockey equipment was a complete waste” Fear of success – “I don’t want to try out for choir because my friends think I have a good voice and if I made it, then I’d have to be on stage” Fear of death Fear of loss Fear of catastrophe if something isn’t in the right order or sequence
    15. 15. Behavioural Symptoms
    16. 16. Behavioural Symptoms Avoidance School refusal Skipping class Dropping out of sports Alcohol, pot, other drugs to avoid anxiety or other challenging emotions “Losing homework” Not wanting friends over Refusal of overnights at friends, relatives, school trips, summer camps Tantrums Yelling Sometimes even physical aggression – “had to drag him kicking and screaming” Copyright 2013 Todd Kettner, Ph.D. 250-505-7019
    17. 17. Thoughts Actions Emotions Managing our anxiety and depression AND improving our physical health outcomes
    18. 18. Emotional Contagion Emotional Contagion (Studies in Emotion and Social Interaction). Hatfield, Cacioppo & Rapson. 1993. Popularized in Malcolm Gladwell’s 2002 Bestseller “The Tipping Point.” Examples: EMTs and ER nurses who calm their patients by talking calmly. Parents and teachers who talk quieter in order to “infect” their loud and boisterous children with their subdued volume.
    19. 19. Emotional Contagion Anxiety and Stress
    20. 20. Strategies Modelling and Rehearsal Physical Exercise Clear and Accurate Information
    21. 21. Yerkes Dodson Law Copyright 2013 Todd Kettner, Ph.D. 250-505-7019
    22. 22. Graduated Mastery Staircase of Success
    23. 23. Anxiety BC’s Excellent Website Resources. Results. Relief. Information for Children, Teens, Parents, and Adults http://www.anxietybc.com/
    24. 24. Resources for Teachers: Fostering Resilience in Students with Mental Health Issues http://keltymentalhealth.ca/education
    25. 25. Handouts for: Relaxed Breathing Building Social Confidence Overcoming Fears Progressive Muscle Relaxation http://youth.anxietybc.com/resources
    26. 26. Empirically Validated Quick Screening Measures for: Depression Anxiety Stress Alcohol Use Social Anxiety Drug Use http://www.mindcheck.ca/mood-stress
    27. 27. Resilience. Mastery. Success.
    28. 28. Photos credits (mostly from Flickr) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Anxious Teen by Holly Learning by woodleywonderworks Social Competence by Purhoor Photograpy Lifelong Success by Jorge Franganillo Amygdala - unknown Spider by Dincordero Spider on eye blog.ericlamb.net Beach by Zanzibar Yerkes Dodson – secretgeek.net Scared Child by Espon Faugstad Distressed Teen in Car by PLCjr Peers by teapics Parents by phub.com.au Educators – apa.org Classroom by horizontal.ingegration Counselor in chair by Parker Knight Staircase by Gwenael Piaser

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