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The Renaissance


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Published in: Spiritual

The Renaissance

  1. 1. The Renaissance The beginning of the Modern Period A period of transition
  2. 2. Two Major Divisions of the Renaissance
  3. 3. The Italian Renaissance <ul><li>The Italian Renaissance (occurred first) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on the city-states of northern Italy and Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Italian Renaissance tended to be more worldly with a great emphasis on secular pursuits, the humanities, and the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth and power </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge was the key </li></ul>
  4. 4. Often called the “Father” of Renaissance humanism <ul><li>The Italian poet, Petrarch </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Northern Renaissance <ul><li>The Northern Renaissance occurred later </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved the regions of Northern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germanic regions (Holy Roman Empire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Netherlands </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Northern Renaissance <ul><li>The spread of the Renaissance was delayed in Northern Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War and political unrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hundred Years’ War </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War of the Roses in Britain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plague and famine </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. “ renaissance” means rebirth The Renaissance began a period of renewed interest and engagement with “classical” (Ancient Greece and Rome) learning, culture, literature, art, style, etc.
  8. 8. Major Themes of the Renaissance <ul><li>Humanism (both secular and religious) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human potential, human progress, expansion of human knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secularism -greater emphasis on non-religious values and concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism -focus on the unique qualities and abilities of the individual person </li></ul>
  9. 9. Major Historical Events of the Renaissance Period <ul><li>Age of Exploration (Period of European Expansion) </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant Reformation and the Religious Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Revolution- Rise of Modern Science </li></ul><ul><li>The Rise of the Modern Nation-state </li></ul>
  10. 10. Background of the Renaissance- High and Late Middle Ages <ul><li>Increased trade and commercial activity during the High Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization-growth of cities and towns </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial and business developments (banking) </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class merchant elite developed </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>A decline in the Church’s hold and control on society and government </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in vernacular literature/growing literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of universities and the expansion of learning </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Birthplace of the Renaissance <ul><li>The city-states of Northern Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Florence was the center of the Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Italy was politically fragmented and the city-states often fought for power and control </li></ul><ul><li>City-states came to be ruled by wealthy and powerful business people (not necessarily nobility) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signori - (despots) and oligarchies (group of individuals) maintained order </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Florence Major center of trade, banking, cloth production, and the arts
  13. 15. The Medici family of Florence <ul><li>The most powerful family of the Italian Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Came to power through business dealings and banking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bank of the Vatican and the papacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spent tremendous amounts of money supporting the arts and cultural development (patrons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medici power often involved corruption and intrigue </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. The Medici Family
  15. 17. Medici Pope
  16. 18. “ The Adoration of the Magi” depicts the Medici family in procession - Celebration of Medici power and influence
  17. 19. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) The Prince <ul><li>Machiavelli was from Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Well educated in the classics </li></ul><ul><li>Career was in public service and he eventually served as the ambassador to France </li></ul><ul><li>Favored republican rule over despotism </li></ul><ul><li>Machiavelli was tortured and imprisoned for a time when Medici rule was reinstated after a conflict with a Spanish mercenary army </li></ul><ul><li>He retired to the country and wrote The Prince </li></ul>
  18. 20. The Prince <ul><li>Written in Italian (not Latin) </li></ul><ul><li>Observations and commentary on political rule and power (Medicis) </li></ul><ul><li>Addressed the issue of effective rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to gain and maintain order and control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stressed the practical (pragmatic ) over the ethical or moral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More secular and humanistic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenged the idea of a social order based on God’s will </li></ul><ul><li>Political science- Politics was to be governed by its own laws </li></ul><ul><li>“… it is safer to be feared than to be loved…” </li></ul>
  19. 22. The Courtier by Castiglione 1528 <ul><li>Written in Italian </li></ul><ul><li>Treatise on the training of young men in the courtly ideal of a Renaissance gentleman </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed the value of education and manners </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced social mores and norms during the period </li></ul>
  20. 24. The Renaissance spread to Northern Europe
  21. 25. Focus of the Northern Renaissance <ul><li>The focus of the Renaissance in Northern Europe was more religious </li></ul><ul><li>Many sought religious reform and a return of the Church to its true mission and spirituality </li></ul><ul><li>Many were highly critical of the worldliness and corruption in the Church and papacy </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Renaissance figures believed that education and literacy were key to social and religious reform </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated the translation of the scriptures into the vernacular languages </li></ul>
  22. 26. Major figures of the Northern Renaissance
  23. 27. Desiderius Erasmus –scholar and theologian <ul><li>The Praise of Folly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticism of the abuses and worldliness of the Church and papacy </li></ul></ul>
  24. 28. Sir Thomas More <ul><li>Lord Chancellor of England during the reign of Henry VIII- highest political office in England </li></ul><ul><li>Lawyer and scholar </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Utopia – explored the idea of a “perfect” society </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually executed by Henry VIII for refusing to agree to the king and Parliament’s Act of Supremacy </li></ul>
  25. 30. Utopia
  26. 31. Martin Luther <ul><li>Associated with the Protestant Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Critical of Church corruption and abuses </li></ul><ul><li>Sought reform </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote the first translation of the Bible in German </li></ul>
  27. 32. Renaissance Art A reflection of Renaissance ideals and values Emphasis on the classical style and classical themes Humanistic - with an emphasis on the individual Religious art remained very important
  28. 33. Characteristics of Renaissance Art <ul><li>Realism </li></ul><ul><li>Three-dimensional </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced and ordered </li></ul><ul><li>Portraits </li></ul><ul><li>Landscapes and attention to depictions of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Classical style </li></ul><ul><li>Depiction of classical themes and stories </li></ul>
  29. 34. Humanism: The School of Athens by Raphael - a celebration of classical learning
  30. 35. Individualism –Portraits -portraits celebrated the unique qualities and personality of the individual person (two examples by Leonardo da Vinci)
  31. 37. Secularism-non-religious Renaissance art often depicted stories and scenes from classical literature
  32. 38. Religion remained a major focal point of Renaissance art - The Sistine Chapel-Michelangelo
  33. 39. Michelangelo’s Pieta
  34. 40. Northern Renaissance Art
  35. 41. Albrecht Durer
  36. 44. Hans Holbein
  37. 45. Bruegel
  38. 47. Major innovations of the Renaissance
  39. 48. Printing Press <ul><li>1455 </li></ul><ul><li>Moveable type printing </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with Gutenburg </li></ul><ul><li>1456 the first Gutenburg Bible was printed </li></ul><ul><li>Printing press allowed for the spread of knowledge and ideas throughout Europe </li></ul>
  40. 51. The Clock <ul><li>The idea of quantification developed </li></ul><ul><li>The universe came to be conceived in more quantifiable terms (measurable terms) </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed for more precise measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Changed the focus of daily life which had been guided by the rhythms of the Church </li></ul>
  41. 53. The Renaissance brought a new way of thinking and living to Europe A new worldview was emerging The medieval Christian worldview was giving way to a more MODERN (secular and humanistic) view of the world and humanity