Age Of Exploration Overview

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Age Of Exploration Overview

  1. 1. THE AGE OF EXPLORATION 15 TH AND 16 TH CENTURY AN OVERVIEW
  2. 3. BACKGROUND- 15 TH CENTURY <ul><li>RISE OF NATIONISM AMONG THE NEW NATION-STATES OF EUROPE </li></ul><ul><li>EMERGENCE OF POWERFUL NEW NATION-STATES WITH ASSERTIVE MONARCHS </li></ul><ul><li>INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS </li></ul><ul><li>EXPANSION OF TRADE AND BUSINESS ACTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>RENAISSANCE QUEST FOR KNOWLEDGE </li></ul><ul><li>RECONQUISTA COMPLETED IN SPAIN- 1492 </li></ul>
  3. 4. MOTIVATING FACTORS FOR EUROPEAN EXPANSION <ul><li>DESIRE TO ENHANCE NATIONAL PRESTIGE (NATIONALISM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NATIONAL WEALTH AND TERRITORY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRESTIGE FOR MONARCHS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>POSSIBILITY OF PERSONAL WEALTH, FAME, AND SOCIAL PRESTIGE </li></ul><ul><li>QUEST FOR NEW GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE </li></ul><ul><li>DESIRE TO SPREAD CHRISTIANITY </li></ul><ul><li>INTENSIFYING INTERNATIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>COMPETITION AMONG THE POWERFUL NATION-STATES OF EUROPE </li></ul><ul><li>DESIRE TO FIND NEW TRADE ROUTES TO THE EAST – INCREASE PROFITS </li></ul>
  4. 5. NEW TECHNOLOGIES THAT IMPACTED EXPLORATION <ul><li>BETTER AND FASTER SHIP DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>PRINTING PRESS </li></ul><ul><li>MORE RELIABLE MAGNETIC COMPASS </li></ul><ul><li>THE INVENTION OF THE CLOCK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALLOWED FOR NEW NAVIGATIONAL METHODS- EVENTUALLY LONGITUDE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ASTROLABE- LATITUDE NAVIGATION </li></ul><ul><li>MORE ACCURATE MAPS </li></ul><ul><li>GUN POWDER AND NEW WEAPONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CANNONS AND MUSKETS </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. CARAVEL
  6. 8. PRINTING PRESS
  7. 9. ASTROLABE
  8. 10. NEW WEAPONS
  9. 13. IMPROVED COMPASS
  10. 14. MAJOR NATION- STATES INVOLVED IN EXPLORATION
  11. 15. PORTUGAL <ul><li>WEST AFRICA </li></ul><ul><li>PARTS OF ASIA </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTH AMERICA (Brazil) </li></ul><ul><li>MAJOR EMPHASIS WAS ON TRADE </li></ul><ul><li>GOLD </li></ul><ul><li>SLAVE TRADE-WEST AFRICA </li></ul><ul><li>NEW PRODUCTS AND SPICES </li></ul>
  12. 16. PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR OF PORTUGAL <ul><li>National policies strongly supported exploration and trade </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal had a long tradition of navigation and trade </li></ul>
  13. 17. SLAVE TRADE – WEST AFRICA <ul><li>African slaves were brought to the New World to primarily work in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal was the major slave trading European nation </li></ul>
  14. 18. SPAIN <ul><ul><li>CARIBBEAN ISLANDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CENTRAL AMERICA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOUTH AMERICA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(EXCEPT BRAZIL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MEXICO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOUTH WEST NORTH AMERICA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PHILIPPINES </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. FERDINAND AND ISABELLA OF SPAIN SUPPORTED EXPLORATION AND EXPANSION
  16. 20. MAJOR EMPHASIS <ul><li>ACCUMULATION OF GOLD AND SILVER </li></ul><ul><li>EXPANSION OF TRADE </li></ul><ul><li>FARMING - SUGAR PLANTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>SOME SLAVE TRADE – LIMITED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain outlawed the slave trade in the 1700’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ACTIVE IN THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JESUITS MISSIONARIES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ACQUISITION OF LAND- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NATIONAL AND PERSONAL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ENHANCE PERSONAL PRESTIGE AND SOCIAL STANDING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STRICT SOCIAL HIERARCHY IN SPAIN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(FEUDAL IN MANY RESPECTS) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. LINE OF DEMARCATION 1493 <ul><li>OFFICIAL AGREEMENT THAT DIVIDED THE TERRITORIES CLAIMED BY SPAIN AND PORTUGAL IN THE NEW WORLD </li></ul><ul><li>IMAGINARY LINE DRAWN BY POPE ALEXANDER VI </li></ul><ul><li>LANDS EAST OF THE LINE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-PORTUGAL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LANDS WEST OF THE LINE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-SPAIN </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. LINE OF DEMARCATION
  19. 23. ENGLAND <ul><li>EAST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA </li></ul><ul><li>CANADA </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA </li></ul>
  20. 24. MAJOR EMPHASIS <ul><li>EXPANSION OF TERRITORY </li></ul><ul><li>TRADE </li></ul><ul><li>NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR MIDDLE CLASS </li></ul><ul><li>FLEEING RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION </li></ul>
  21. 25. MAJOR EUROPEAN EXPLORERS <ul><li>VASCO DA GAMA- first to sail around the Cape of Good Hope </li></ul><ul><li>MAGELLAN -first voyage to circumnavigate the globe </li></ul><ul><li>COLUMBUS -first European voyage to arrive in the New World </li></ul><ul><li>CORTEZ -conquest of the Aztec Empire in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>PIZARRO -conquest of the Incan Empire in Peru </li></ul><ul><li>BALBOA -first to see the Pacific- crossed Panama </li></ul><ul><li>PONCE DE LEON- explored Florida </li></ul><ul><li>CORONADO -first European to see the Grand Canyon and explore the southern US </li></ul>
  22. 26. VASCO DA GAMA- PORTUGUESE
  23. 27. MAGELLAN-PORTUGUESE <ul><li>MAGELLAN DID NOT SURVIVE THE VOYAGE </li></ul><ul><li>OF THE 270 MEN WHO BEGAN THE VOYAGE AROUND THE GLOBE, ONLY 18 FINISHED AND RETURNED TO EUROPE </li></ul>
  24. 29. COLUMBUS- ITALIAN LED THREE VOYAGES TO THE NEW WORLD
  25. 30. CORTEZ- SPANISH
  26. 31. PIZARRO- SPANISH
  27. 32. PIZARRO-CONQUEST OF THE INCAN EMPIRE IN PERU
  28. 33. INCAN EMPIRE IN PERU THE ANCIENT INCAN CITY OF MACHU PICCHU
  29. 34. BALBOA <ul><li>CROSSING THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST EUROPEAN TO CROSS FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE PACIFIC </li></ul>
  30. 35. CORONADO EXPLORED THE SOUTHWEST (GRAND CANYON)
  31. 36. LABOR AND INDUSTRY IN THE NEW WORLD
  32. 37. ENCOMIENDA TRIBUTE LABOR SYSTEM – NATIVE PEOPLES WERE REQUIRED TO GIVE LABOR TO THE EUROPEAN SETTLERS
  33. 38. MINING <ul><li>SILVER MINES </li></ul><ul><li>AT POTOSI </li></ul><ul><li>VAST AMOUNTS OF GOLD AND SILVER WERE SENT TO SPAIN FROM THE NEW WORLD </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY LABOR FORCE WAS THE INDEGENOUS POPULATION </li></ul>
  34. 39. PLANTATIONS- SUGAR BECAME A MAJOR EXPORT CROP NATIVE PEOPLES AND AFRICAN SLAVES WORKED THE FARMS AND PLANTATIONS
  35. 40. 15 TH AND 16 TH CENTURY ECONOMIC MODEL MERCANTILISM <ul><li>BASED ON THE ACCUMULATION OF GOLD AND SILVER (PRECIOUS METALS) </li></ul><ul><li>GOLD AND SILVER WERE THE MEASURE OF WEALTH- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT BUSINESS OR PRODUCTION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THE PURPOSE OF THE ECONOMY WAS TO SERVE THE STATE </li></ul><ul><li>TRADE WAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON EXPORTING AND SELLING GOODS IN THE NEW COLONIES </li></ul><ul><li>LITTLE CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN BUSINESS </li></ul><ul><li>COLONIAL HOLDINGS WERE SEEN AS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MARKETS FOR EUROPEAN GOODS </li></ul></ul>
  36. 41. THE IMPACT OF EUROPEAN EXPANSION – AGE OF EXPLORAITON
  37. 42. ECONOMIC <ul><li>RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH AND AN INCREASE IN BUSINESS ACTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>VAST AMOUNTS OF GOLD AND SILVER FLOODED INTO EUROPE </li></ul><ul><li>PRICES OF GOODS ROSE DUE TO INLFATION AND MERCANTILIST ECONOMIC POLICIES </li></ul><ul><li>EXPANDED OPPORTUNITES FOR THE RISING MIDDLE CLASS </li></ul><ul><li>MAJORITY OF EUROPEANS SAW LITTLE IMPROVEMENT IN THEIR STANDARD OF LIVING </li></ul><ul><li>CAPITALISM BEGAN TO EMERGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(EXCEPTION WAS IN SPAIN) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 43. POLITICAL <ul><li>WESTERN EUROPE BEGAN TO DOMINATE THE GLOBE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NEW LANDS WERE CLAIMED AND COLONIZED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WESTERN POLITICAL MODELS WERE INSTALLED </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THE RIVALRY BETWEEN THE NATION-STATES OF EUROPE INTENSIFIED </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNATIONAL TENSIONS GREW </li></ul>
  39. 44. SOCIETAL <ul><li>SOCIAL VALUES BEGAN TO BE MORE FOCUSED ON MATERIAL WEALTH AND SOCIAL STANDING </li></ul><ul><li>GROWING SECULAR TREND </li></ul><ul><li>RISING MIDDLE CLASS BENIFITTED FROM NEW ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL OPPORTUNITIES </li></ul><ul><li>POWER AND WEALTH IN THE COLONIES CAME TO BE CONCENTRATED IN THE HANDS OF A FEW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES HAVE CONTINUED TO PLAGUE THESE REGIONS AS A RESULT OF THIS TREND </li></ul></ul>
  40. 45. RELIGIOUS <ul><li>CHRISTIANITY SPREAD ACROSS THE GLOBE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE AMERICAS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PARTS OF ASIA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES WORKED TO CONVERT NATIVE POPULATIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE JESUITS WERE VERY ACTIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STARTED MISSIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESTABLISHED SCHOOLS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THE CATHOLIC CHURCH BECAME DOMINANT IN MANY COLONIAL REGIONS </li></ul><ul><li>VERY OFTEN CONVERSIONS WERE FORCED AND OR COERCED; HOWEVER, MANY TRULY CONVERTED TO CHRISTIANITY </li></ul><ul><li>CHRISTIANITY OFTEN BLENDED WITH TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS BELIEFS AND PRACTICES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SYNCRETICISM </li></ul></ul>
  41. 46. GLOBAL <ul><li>MILLIONS OF AFRICANS WERE IMPORTED TO THE NEW WORLD AS SLAVES </li></ul><ul><li>ANIMALS WERE BROUGHT TO THE AMERICAS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HORSES AND CATTLE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NEW PLANTS AND CROPS WERE EXCHANGED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TOMATOES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POTATOES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CORN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ETC. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 47. INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS <ul><li>NATIVE POPULATIONS IN THE NEW WORLD WERE DECIMATED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESTIMATED THAT FROM 1500-1600 THE POPULATION SHRANK FROM 20 MILLION TO 2 MILLION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DISEASE AND MALNUTRITION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WAR AND CONFLICT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HARSH LABOR </li></ul></ul>
  43. 48. <ul><li>INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS MIXED WITH EUROPEANS AND AFRICANS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NEW CULTURAL AND RACIAL GROUPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BLENDING OF CULTURES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LANGUAGE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RELIGION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CUSTOMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MUSIC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ART </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 49. THE AGE OF EXPLORATION WAS IN MANY WAYS A REFLECTION THE IDEALS AND VALUES OF THE RENAISSANCE

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