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  1. 1. Modal Auxiliaries present and future:• Ability• Can and be able to• Be able to is used in situations where can does not have the necessary grammatical form. Id like to be able to swim. Not being able to swim is annoying. Can is also used with ‘be’ to make criticisms. You can be really annoying, you know! Can is used with ‘be’ for capability. Winter here can be really cold.• Fenerbahce stadium can take 30 thousand people.04/19/12 1
  2. 2. Certainty and uncertainty• Must and cant• These are used to make deductions, when we are more or less certain about something, especially with the verb to be. You must be tired after your journey. (I suppose you are) That cant be Sue. Shes in Brazil. (Im sure its impossible)• The plane must arrive soon.04/19/12 2
  3. 3. May, might and could• These all express uncertainty or possibility. They are usually stressed in speech.• Might is less likely than may.• May and might express possibility or uncertaintyThe committee may find a solution to the problem.∀ • Could is not used with not in this context. It may not rain.I might go out, I dont know. 04/19/12 I could get wet! 3
  4. 4. • May is used to express although clauses ( but, however, although, though, etc…) He may be the boss, but that is no excuse for shouting like that.• May / might as well describe the only thing to do, something which the speaker is not enthusiastic about. Nobody else is going to turn up now for the lesson, so you may as well go home.• With an idiomatic expression with ‘try’, using may for the present reference, and might for the past reference.• Try as I might, I couldn’t pass my driving test. (Although I tried hard, I couldn’t pass my driving test.) 04/19/12 4
  5. 5. Could is used:• Possibility or uncertainty This could be the house.• With comparative adjectives to express possibility or impossibility. The situation could be worse. It could be better.• To make suggestions. We could eat at home tonight.• To express unwillingness. I couldn’t possibly leave Tom here on his own.04/19/12 5
  6. 6. shall• Shall can be used with all persons to emphasise something which the speaker feels is certain to happen or wants to happen. I shall definitely give up smoking this year. We shall win. ( it is stressed in the sentence)• Shall is used in formal rules and regulations. No player shall knowingly pick up or move the ball of another player.04/19/12 6
  7. 7. Will• Will is used to express assumption. -- The phone is ringing. --That will be for me.• Will and Won’t is used emphatically to tell someone of the speaker’s intention, or to forbid an action, in response to a will expression.• -- I will take the money anyway ! -- You won’t ! -- I will !• And I won’t can mean ‘I refuse.’ I will can mean ‘I insist.’ -- I won’t do it! -- Yes, you will!04/19/12 7
  8. 8. Would• Would can refer to an annoying event, typical of a person.James would get lost, wouldn’t he! It is typical!• Would also expresses certainty, where the sentence is a hidden conditional sentence. Nobody would agree with that idea. ( if we asked them)Life wouldn’t be worth living without you. ( if you weren’t there.)04/19/12 8
  9. 9. • Would can be used with ‘be’ followed by an adjective doubtful, unlikely to emphasise an uncertain action.• Also after doubt in the same way.It is unlikely that Jane would do something like that.I doubt whether Heidi would know the answer.04/19/12 9
  10. 10. Need• It is used as a normal verb. Do you need to use the photocopier?• used as a modal verb, but in questions and negatives.Need you make so much noise?You don’t need to come to school.04/19/12 10
  11. 11. . be bound to • This refers to the future, whereas must refers to the present. You re bound to see Paula If you go there. {Im sure you will) You must see Paula if you go there. (An obligation)04/19/12 11
  12. 12. Obligation• Must and have to• Have to describes obligations made by someone else, while must is used to describe a personal obligation. There may be no difference.• You must start working harder! (I say so)• You have to turn left here. (Its the law)• Sorry, I must leave / have to leave now. (No difference)04/19/12 12
  13. 13. • Mustn’t and dont have to• Mustnt describes something which is not allowed or an obligation not to do something. You mustnt leave any bags here. (Its against the rules) You mustn’t leave the class before the end of the test.• Dont have to describes something which is not necessary or absence of obligation. You dont have to apply yet. (Its not necessary)04/19/12 13
  14. 14. Should and ought to• These have the same meaning. They describe what is a good idea and can be used to give advice, or polite instructions.I think you should see a doctor You ought not to continue.You should send in your application by July 18th.04/19/12 14
  15. 15. Should is used• As expectation• Should can also describe actions we expect to happen. Brenda should be home by now. (She is expected to be)• As recommendation. I think you should talk it over with your parents.• As a strong obligation politely, in writing. Guests should vacate their rooms by midday.• As criticism You shouldn’t eat so much late at night.04/19/12 15
  16. 16. • Uncertainty• Should I leave these papers on your desk?• With be and adjectives describing change like odd, strange, funny and with the expression ‘ what a coincidence!’• It is strange that you should be staying in the same hotel.• To emphasise unlikelihood with ‘in case’• I am taking an umbrella in case it should rain.04/19/12 16
  17. 17. Had better• This refers to present or future time, and gives advice about how to stop something going wrong.• I think youd better leave now. (Before it is too late)• You d better not drive. (It might be dangerous)04/19/12 17
  18. 18. Is / Are to• This is used in formal instructions. Not is stressed.No one is to leave the room. You are not to leave the room.04/19/12 18
  19. 19. • Be careful with these;• Most modal auxiliaries have more than one meaning. You may have to think carefully about the context to understand the meaning.• The negative forms mustnt and dont have to have different meanings.• You mustnt go. (It is against the rules)• You dont have to go. (It isnt necessary)• Should is a weaker obligation than must and have to.04/19/12 19
  20. 20. exercises• Choose the most suitable word or phrase.• Theres someone at the door. It ………….. postman. He always comes at this time. A) can be B) must be C) might be D) should• must be04/19/12 20
  21. 21. 2. Dont worry, you …………… pay now. A) dont have to B) mustnt C) can’t D) mightn’t• Don’t have to04/19/12 21
  22. 22. • I think you …………… take a pullover with you.It may get colder later.• A) had better B) would better C) would rather D) would like• Had better• Jones …………… president if Smith has to resign since he is the only one who can handle the pressures of the public.• A) could be B) must be• C) had to be D) were to• Must be04/19/12 22
  23. 23. • Sorry, I cant stay any longer. I …………… .• A) have to go B) might go C) can go D) may go• have to go• It was 5 oclock an hour ago. Your watch ………….right.• A) cant be B) mustnt be• C) needn’t D) doesn’t have to be• can’t be04/19/12 23
  24. 24. 1. Its a school rule, all the pupils ………a uniform. A) have to wear B) must wear C) can wear D) are allowed to wear3. Have to wear4. I suppose that our team ………….. but Im not sure. A) must win B) should win C) have to win D) is allowed to win• Should win04/19/12 24
  25. 25. • Let us tell Diana. She .............. know.• A) could not B) might not• D) must not D) need not Might not In my opinion, the government .......... something about this.• A) might do B) should do• C) Could do D) may do• Should do04/19/12 25
  26. 26. • Dont stand up in the boat! You ……....... fall in the river! A) might B) must C) should D) are able to• might 12. Sue says shes stuck in the traffic and she.................. be late. A) might B) must C) ought to D) should• might 04/19/12 26
  27. 27. • 13. You really.................. start spending more time on your work.• A) might B) must• C) can D) could• must• 14. Tell Peter he.................. stay the night here if he wants to.• A) might B) must• C) should D) ought to• might04/19/12 27
  28. 28. • 15. Thats a really stupid idea! You .................. be serious, surely!• A) might B) must• C) mustn’t D) can’t• can’t• 16. You ......... ....... realise it, but this is very important to me.• A) mightn’t B) mustn’t• C) can’t D) shouldn’t• mightn’t 04/19/12 28
  29. 29. • 17. Dont be silly. You .................. expect me to believe you!• A) mightn’t B) can’t• C) mustn’t D) shouldn’t• can’t• 18. Were not sure but we.................. go to Prague for Christmas this year.• A) might B) must C) should D) ought to• might 04/19/12 29
  30. 30. • 19. Me learn to fly! You .................. be kidding!• A) might B) can’t• C) must D) mustn’t• must• 20. Bill cooked the lunch, so you .................. expect anything special! A) mightn’t B) might C) shouldn’t D) can• shouldn’t04/19/12 30
  31. 31. • 21. I don’t think you …………… tell anyone yet.• A) could B) should• C) might D) can• should• 22. I …………. possibly leave without paying.• A) couldn’t B) shouldn’t• C) mustn’t D) don’t have to• Could not04/19/12 31
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