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  1. 1. Groundwater Chapters 9 & 10
  2. 2. Water Cycle
  3. 3. Water Cycle <ul><li>Runoff  Water flowing down slope along earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Streams / Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation – water changing from a liquid to a gas </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration – water vapor given off by plants </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Water – feeds to oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation – water vapor  clouds </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation – clouds  rain/snow </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stream Velocity & Carrying Capacity <ul><li>Discharge – Volume of water that flows past a point at a given time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge (m 3 /s) = width (m) x depth (m) x velocity (m/s) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Flooding <ul><li>Floodplain – broad area extends out from stream, floods </li></ul><ul><li>Flood – water spills over banks </li></ul>
  6. 6. Formation of Stream <ul><li>V-shape – early stream, fast moving </li></ul><ul><li>Meandering – wider channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxbow lakes – cut off mainstream </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delta – Triangle shape at the end of river </li></ul>
  7. 8. Hydrosphere <ul><li>Water in and on the earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>97% in oceans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3% fresh water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90% in glaciers & ice caps </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Groundwater Storage <ul><li>Infiltration – rainwater filters through ground </li></ul><ul><li>Porosity – sandstone acts as a filter </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of saturation – area of ground that is full of water </li></ul><ul><li>Aquifer – layer of earth that holds water </li></ul>
  9. 10. Wells <ul><li>Wells – drilled into water table </li></ul><ul><li>Artesian well – pressurized well caused by large volumes of water flowing off mountains </li></ul>