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  1. 1. Prompting<br />Chase Callard<br />
  2. 2. What is a prompt?<br />A prompt is a supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response<br />Prompts are used when the procedure materials or directions fail to evoke the desired response<br />The prompt is not the discriminative stimulus (SD)<br />
  3. 3. Why do we prompt?<br />Used to bring about the desired response<br />Works much faster than shaping<br />Designed to help bring the desired behavior under the control of the SD<br />
  4. 4. Prompt vs. SD<br />The prompt is not an SD, though sometimes it may look similar to one<br />E.g. the SD for imitation is a model of the desired response<br />Clapping your hands so the child claps their hands<br /> But the SD for follow directions is a verbal statement<br />Saying “clap hands” so the child claps their hands<br /> While the prompt is a model of clapping hands<br />This is important to understand because procedures are meant to train different skills and the SDs and prompts are designed to promote those particular skills<br />
  5. 5. Prompt vs. SD Follow Directions<br />The SD, ‘clap hands,’ signals the availability of the reinforcer<br />Only after hearing ‘clap hands’ will clapping hands result in a reinforcer<br />The prompt helps the student respond correctly<br />The child didn’t respond to the verbal SD<br />So the tutor provides the model prompt of clapping hands and repeats the SD, ‘clap hands’<br />Which the child imitates <br />
  6. 6. Reinforcing prompted responses<br />Prompted responses should be reinforced!<br />Especially for new or difficult procedures<br />Behavior only increases if it is followed by a reinforcing outcome<br />Otherwise prompting serves no purpose<br />
  7. 7. Types of prompts<br />There are several different types of prompts:<br />Physical/manual<br />E.g. full and partial physical prompts<br />Gestural<br />E.g. tapping the correct sample stimulus <br />Model<br />E.g. performing the desired action <br />Verbal <br />E.g. telling your child to say, “Hi Kelly”<br />
  8. 8. Types of prompts cont’d<br />Many KAC procedures use multiple prompting strategies<br />Especially gestural and physical<br />E.g. Matching <br />Or model and physical<br />E.g. Follow directions<br />
  9. 9. Prompting at KAC<br />First look at the procedure!<br />What does the procedure call for?<br />It is very important to follow the prompting strategies provided by the procedure<br />If you do not understand what the procedure calls for in terms of prompting, ask a supervisor!<br />Most KAC procedures use least-to-most prompts<br />I.e. the prompts become more and more intrusive<br />E.g. matching uses a gestural, then partial physical, then full physical prompt<br />
  10. 10. Prompting at KAC Cont’d.<br />Gestural prompts:<br />Involve pointing to or tapping the correct sample stimulus<br />Physical prompts:<br />Partial: Involves physically guiding the student’s body in an approximation of the response<br />Usually done from the elbow<br />Full: Involves physically guiding the student’s body through the entire response<br />Usually done hand-over-hand <br />
  11. 11. Prompting at KAC Cont’d.<br />Model prompts:<br />Involve the tutor modeling the desired response<br />Verbal prompts:<br />Involve some verbal stimulus presented by the tutor<br />E.g. in a tacting procedure the SD is “What’s this?” and the verbal prompt is saying the correct answer<br />
  12. 12. Prompt dependence<br />Sometimes a child will begin to ‘rely’ on prompts<br />Since reinforcement is contingent on even prompted responses<br />Therefore it is important to look out for prompt dependence<br />And start using prompt fading as soon as possible<br />
  13. 13. Prompt fading<br />Prompt fading serves two main purposes:<br />To prevent the child from becoming prompt dependent<br />And to bring the response under the control of the SD alone<br />We may reduce how much assistance we give<br />Delay the start of the prompt<br />Or make independent responding more reinforcing than prompted responding <br />
  14. 14. Questions?<br />Comments?<br />