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  • -rejection of authority. Mostly Church authority, several crises contributed to this. -”best” authority was practical. Bacon: “purpose of knowledge was to ease man’s estate” Descartes: purpose of knowledge “to make us, as it were, masters and possessors of nature” Demystification of the universe: e.g., heavenly realm above the moon was no longer of eternal bodies that had no matter or weren’t physical Experiment was different from Observation, which the ancient did.
  • Called into question the literal truth of the Scriptures. There are a few passages where God, for example, makes the sun stand still. This implies that the earth is still and the sun moves around it.
  • Among observations: moons of Jupiter, that is that there are planets with their own satellites: this also goes against the conception of perfect crystal spheres.
  • Mathematician: invented the Cartesian Coordinate system and analytic geometry, among other things. Promoter of deductive reasoning . Wanted science to be like Euclid: deductions from self-evident starting points.
  • Cogito ergo sum was one of Descartes’ “axioms”, that is, certain and self-evident truths that other truths could then be deduced from using a deductive method.
  • Renaissance2[1]

    1. 1. Reformation and Scientific Revolution World History
    2. 2. Reformers become radical <ul><li>Following the rise of Martin Luther and John Calvin, hundreds of protestant sects were created. </li></ul><ul><li>These sects had extreme ideas that were opposite from the Roman Catholic Church. </li></ul><ul><li>The Anabaptists were one of the most important radical groups, they believed that only adults should be baptized. </li></ul><ul><li>Anabaptists wanted social reforms but they preached non-violence and toleration of other religions. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Baptists, Quakers, Mennonites, and Amish trace their roots to the Anabaptists. </li></ul>
    3. 3. English Reformation <ul><li>Religious leaders in England had called for reforms since the 1300’s. </li></ul><ul><li>The break with the Catholic Church would not come from religious leaders but from a King. </li></ul><ul><li>King Henry VIII, to be exact. </li></ul>
    4. 4. From “Defender of the Faith” to head of the Church of England <ul><li>King Henry VIII violently defended the Roman Catholic Church at first. </li></ul><ul><li>The pope gave him the title “Defender of the Faith” to reward his loyalty to the Church. </li></ul><ul><li>However Henry VIII had a personal issue…… </li></ul>
    5. 5. NO HEIR!!!! <ul><li>In 1527, Henry VIII asked the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon because she had not bore him a son. </li></ul><ul><li>The pope refused because he did not want to upset Holy Emperor Charles V, Catherine’s nephew. </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is a King to do??? <ul><li>Henry VIII was furious and he decided to take over the English Church. </li></ul><ul><li>With the help of the English Parliament, laws were passed that made Henry VIII the sole head of the Church of England. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII then appointed a new archbishop who quickly annulled the King’s marriage. </li></ul>
    7. 7. King Henry’s Wives
    8. 8. The legacy of King Henry VIII <ul><li>After his death in 1547, the rule went to his ten year old son, Edward VI. Edward died in his teens and the throne goes to his catholic sister Mary. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary converts England back to the Catholic Church. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1558, Mary dies and Elizabeth becomes queen. She brings back the protestant Church of England and moderate reforms. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Catholic Reformation <ul><li>While England was on the protestant roller-coaster, a wave of religious wars swept over the rest of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to weed out the protestant religions, the Catholic Church started a wave of reforms. The Council of Trent in 1545, was a meeting of Church leaders to plan how to reform the Church. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Reforms <ul><li>To combat the protestant competition, the pope strengthened the inquisition, a secret court that used testimony, torture, and execution against protestants. The Index of Forbidden Books was created by the inquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>To spread the Catholic faith, the pope adopted the Ignatius of Loyola or the Jesuit order. Missionaries traveled the world spreading the Catholic faith. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Age of Persecution <ul><li>As Europe became divided into a protestant North and a Catholic South, both sides persecuted the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Witch Hunts started in the 1450’s for many reasons: 1) a common belief in magic/spirits, and 2) a need to blame someone for the problems of the church. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Profound change in the European world-view in the late 16 th and 17 th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Primary cause was the Scientific Revolution (1543-present) </li></ul><ul><li>The most profound change in human history? </li></ul><ul><li>New intellectual climate differed from medieval & early modern world-view: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Best” knowledge was practical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demystification of the universe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientists of this era differed from predecessors in combining mathematics and experiment </li></ul>
    13. 13. Introduction <ul><li>Roots – science & technology from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient Egypt – pyramids, mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China – movable type, paper, astronomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam – medicine, ancient Greek texts, astronomy, mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medieval Europe – alchemy, herbalists, cathedrals </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) <ul><li>Polish monk </li></ul><ul><li>Observed patterns of star and planet movement </li></ul><ul><li>On the Revolutions of Celestial Bodies (1543) </li></ul><ul><li>Heliocentrism </li></ul><ul><li>Called into question the literal truth of the Scriptures </li></ul><ul><li>Copernicus waited until he was near death to publish his findings </li></ul>
    15. 15. The Heliocentric (Copernican) Universe
    16. 16. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) <ul><li>Italian scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Improved the telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Made observations that proved the Copernican view of the universe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunspots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wrote in the vernacular </li></ul><ul><li>1633 – Church forced Galileo to recant; placed under house arrest </li></ul>
    17. 17. Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany (1615) <ul><li>Written to address the conflict between the Bible and heliocentric theory </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that the Bible must be interpreted in light of scientific knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Argued for a non-literal interpretation of the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo declared the Bible teaches how to go to heaven, not how the heavens go </li></ul><ul><li>The letter began Galileo’s troubles with the Catholic Church </li></ul>
    18. 18. Ren é Descartes (1596-1650) <ul><li>French mathematician and philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>A transitional figure between the medieval past and modern science </li></ul><ul><li>A rationalist </li></ul><ul><li>Promoter of deductive reasoning , predicting particular results from general principles </li></ul>
    19. 19. Discourse on Method (1637) <ul><li>Descartes wished to develop a method that could be used to yield scientific truth </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that abstract reasoning and math were a more reliable path to truth; our senses could deceive us </li></ul><ul><li>Cogito ergo sum (“I think, therefore I am”) </li></ul>
    20. 20. Isaac Newton <ul><li>Discovered gravity. </li></ul><ul><li>English student, achieved fame at the age of 24. </li></ul><ul><li>Important mathematician and scientist. </li></ul><ul><li>Newton also developed Calculus. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Significance of the Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Contributions of these scientists made the universe comprehensible for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>The individual became much more important; collective authority was not the source of wisdom…individual intellect was </li></ul><ul><li>After the Revolution, God was viewed by many as either a remote “master mechanic”, or his existence began to be doubted </li></ul><ul><li>Began long adversarial relationship between science and religion </li></ul><ul><li>The Revolution laid the foundation for the Enlightenment of the 18 th century… </li></ul>