Renaissance 3


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Renaissance 3

  1. 1. Northern Renaissance World History
  2. 2. Differences between Italy and Northern Europe: <ul><li>Should not be considered a part of Italian art. </li></ul><ul><li>But, Italian influence was strong. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Painting in OIL, developed in Flanders, was widely adopted in Italy . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The differences between the two cultures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy  change was inspired by humanism with its emphasis on the revival of the values of classical antiquity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. Europe  change was driven by religious reform, the return to Christian values, and the revolt against the authority of the Church. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More princes & kings were patrons of artists. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Northern European Renaissance Art: <ul><li>The continuation of late medieval attention to details. </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency toward realism & naturalism [less emphasis on the “classical ideal”]. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in landscapes. </li></ul><ul><li>More emphasis on middle-class and peasant life. </li></ul><ul><li>Details of domestic interiors. </li></ul><ul><li>Great skill in portraiture. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Flemish Artist: Jan van Eyck <ul><li>More courtly and aristocratic work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court painter to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> The Virgin and Chancellor Rolin , 1435. </li></ul>
  5. 5. German “Leonardo”: Albrecht Durer <ul><li>The greatest of German artists. </li></ul><ul><li>A scholar as well as an artist. </li></ul><ul><li>His patron was the Emperor Maximilian I. </li></ul><ul><li>Also a scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Self-conscious individualism of the Renaissance is seen in his portraits. </li></ul><ul><li> Self-Portrait at 26 , 1498. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Writers for a New Audience <ul><li>The growing middle class demanded new works from writers. </li></ul><ul><li>Rabelais is a French humanist who wrote dramatic stories. </li></ul><ul><li>William Shakespeare is the most famous of all Renaissance writers. He wrote 37 plays during his life and added 1,700 words to the English language. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Scenes from Shakespeare:
  8. 8. The Printing Revolution <ul><li>Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1456. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1500, more than 20 million books had been printed, mostly copies of the Bible. </li></ul><ul><li>The printing press opened the door for an educated modern world. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Medieval Europe- Review <ul><li>Medieval Europe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily Life of the peasants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beliefs of the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death and Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of Authority and God </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As times changed with the Renaissance, people began to question the Church. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Medieval Church- Review <ul><li>Church Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Catholic Church , was the only Church in Western Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bible was only to be read by Priests or Bishops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church services were only in the Latin Language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However….people began to question these practices. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Life of a Monk <ul><li>Community Work </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Rest </li></ul><ul><li>Penance </li></ul><ul><li>Work in the Monastery </li></ul><ul><li>Meals </li></ul>
  12. 12. Corruption in the Church <ul><ul><ul><li>Since the Crusades, the Church started selling indulgences. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indulgences are documents that lessen the punishment for sins in exchange for money. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Revolt Begins <ul><li>In 1517, a priest started offering indulgences to anyone who contributed money to rebuild St. Peter’s cathedral in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>This was the last straw for Martin Luther, a German monk. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 95 Theses <ul><li>Luther wrote the 95 Theses or 95 arguments against indulgences. </li></ul><ul><li>Luther’s main argument was that faith alone could save people. </li></ul><ul><li>Luther was excommunicated by the Church but he continued to preach his message and to encourage people to question the Church. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Luther’s Teachings <ul><li>Salvation is achieved through faith alone. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible is the sole source of religious truth. </li></ul><ul><li>All Christians had equal access to God through faith and the Bible. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Spread of Lutheran Ideas <ul><li>People believed that Luther’s reforms were the solution to Church corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants banned together to support Luther in hopes for social and economic change. The Peasant’s Revolt of 1524 in Germany left thousands dead after the revolt became violent. </li></ul><ul><li>The Peace of Augsburg: in 1555, a settlement was reached that allowed each prince to decide which religion would be followed in his land. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Calvinism: Another Reform <ul><li>John Calvin was born in France and wrote the Institutes of Christian Religion in 1536. </li></ul><ul><li>Calvin believed in many of Luther’s beliefs but he also preached the idea of predestination. </li></ul><ul><li>Calvin believed that the world was divided into saints and sinners and that God had decided who would go into heaven a long time ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Calvin believed that both men and women should be educated to read the bible. He encouraged women to participate in religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Calvinists faced prosecution across Europe. </li></ul>