Kaup Schafferver3


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Kaup Schafferver3

  1. 1. Schaffer PowerPoint Writing with Structure
  2. 2. Schaffer Method <ul><li>The Schaffer Method of writing the Multiparagraph Essay gives writers a structure or guide to follow </li></ul>
  3. 3. Terminology <ul><li>In order to succeed in this unit you will need to familiarize yourself with the terminology of the method. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Terminology <ul><li>Essay </li></ul><ul><li>A piece of writing that gives your thoughts (commentary) about a subject. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Terminology <ul><li>Essay </li></ul><ul><li>All essays you will write in this unit will have at least 4 paragraphs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Each Essay will have: <ul><li>Four paragraphs: </li></ul><ul><li>An introduction paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>Two body paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>A concluding paragraph </li></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction <ul><li>Also called the introductory paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>The first paragraph in an essay </li></ul><ul><li>Includes the thesis, which is MOST OFTEN at the END of the paragraph. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Body Paragraph <ul><li>Middle paragraph in an essay </li></ul><ul><li>Develops a point that supports your thesis </li></ul>
  9. 9. Concluding Paragraph <ul><li>The last paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>It may sum up your ideas, reflect on what you said in your essay, say more commentary about your subject, or give a personal statement about the subject. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Concluding Paragraph <ul><li>Your conclusion is ALL COMMENTARY and does not include CONCRETE DETAIL </li></ul>
  11. 11. Concluding Paragraph <ul><li>Your Conclusion DOES NOT repeat KEY WORDS from your paper </li></ul><ul><li>Your Conclusion does not repeat KEY WORDS from your THESIS or INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH </li></ul>
  12. 12. Concluding Paragraph <ul><li>Your conclusion should give a finished feeling to your whole essay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It should leave the reader satisfied like a runner who has just finished a race! </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Thesis <ul><li>A sentence with a subject and opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>IN this method opinion is also called COMMENTARY </li></ul>
  14. 14. Thesis <ul><li>Your thesis statement should usually come at the end of the introductory paragraph </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pre-writing <ul><li>The process of getting your concrete details down on paper BEFORE you organize your essay into paragraphs </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pre-writing <ul><li>Bubble Cluster </li></ul>Main Idea
  17. 17. Pre-writing <ul><li>Spider Diagram </li></ul>Main Idea
  18. 18. Pre-writing <ul><li>Outlines </li></ul><ul><li>I. Main Idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Secondary Idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Sub Idea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Example </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. Example </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Pre-Writing <ul><li>Line Clustering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In line clustering you put the subject of the essay you are working on at the top. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You then complete three steps to do a line cluster </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Line Clustering <ul><li>LIST </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List all of the ideas that come into your mind regarding your subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You should list SIX ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each IDEA should have at least FIVE words in it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Line Clustering <ul><li>LIST (Example) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject: Dogs are my favorite kind of animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very loyal and loveable all of the time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fun to play with both inside and outside the house </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They take a lot of care and attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large dogs need much more space than small dogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small dogs can stay in your lap and in your bed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small dogs can make neighbors more upset </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Line Clustering <ul><li>After you list everything you then think of ways you can CATEGORIZE the things in your list together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example from the left: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Categories can be: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A: Benefits of Dogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B: Challenges of Caring for Dogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject: Dogs are my favorite kind of animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very loyal and loveable all of the time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fun to play with both inside and outside the house </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They take a lot of care and attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large dogs need much more space than small dogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small dogs can stay in your lap and in your bed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small dogs can make neighbors more upset </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Line Clustering <ul><li>STEP THREE: </li></ul><ul><li>Label each of your IDEAS in your LIST by the CATEGORY </li></ul>
  24. 24. Line Clustering <ul><li>Category A: Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very loyal and loveable all of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fun to play with both inside and outside the house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small dogs can stay in your lap and in your bed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Category B: </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They take a lot of care and attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large dogs need much more space than small dogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small dogs can make neighbors more upset </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Columns <ul><li>The last form of Pre Writing in the Schaffer Method is forming Columns </li></ul>
  26. 26. Columns #1 The subject of your pre writing goes in this box
  27. 27. Columns #1 Dogs #2 Two main ideas go in the second two boxes
  28. 28. Columns #1 Dogs #2 Companions Responsibility
  29. 29. Columns #1 Dogs #2 Companions Responsibility #3 Each idea in #3 has at least five words Each idea in #3 has at least five words
  30. 30. Columns #1 Dogs #2 Companions Responsibility #3 <ul><ul><li>Very loyal and loveable all of the time </li></ul></ul>-They take a lot of care and attention
  31. 31. Concrete Details (CD) <ul><li>Specific details easy to “see” or imagine </li></ul><ul><li>Like a BRICK—easy to see </li></ul>
  32. 32. Concrete Details (CD) <ul><li>These “specific” details form the BACKBONE or core of your body paragraphs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will the details in your paragraph, help your paragraph STAND UP STRAIGHT? </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Concrete Details (CD) <ul><li>Your paragraphs will only be as STRONG as your DETAILS </li></ul>
  34. 34. Concrete Details (CD) <ul><li>Synonyms for CONCRETE Details </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FACTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPECIFICS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ILLUSTRATIONS </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Concrete Details (CD) <ul><li>Other Synonyms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plot references </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Commentary (CM) <ul><li>Your opinion or comment about something </li></ul><ul><li>NOT concrete detail </li></ul>
  37. 37. Commentary (CM) <ul><li>Synonyms for Commentary include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Commentary (CM) <ul><li>Synonyms for Commentary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Topic Sentence <ul><li>The FIRST SENTENCE in a body paragraph. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have a SUBJECT and OPINION (Commentary) for the paragraph. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Topic Sentence <ul><li>The Topic Sentence does the same thing for a BODY PARAGRAPH that the THESIS does for the whole essay </li></ul>
  41. 41. Concluding Sentence <ul><li>Of course, the concluding sentence is the LAST sentence in a body paragraph. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Concluding Sentence <ul><li>This sentence is ALL commentary (opinion). </li></ul><ul><li>Just like the Concluding Paragraph in the Essay it does NOT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat key words </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Concluding Sentence <ul><li>This sentence should give a finished feeling to the paragraph. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is done, complete. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Shaping the Essay <ul><li>The STEP after Pre-writing. </li></ul><ul><li>This is done BEFORE the first draft of the essay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are still mixing the ingredients needed to write your essay </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Shaping the Essay <ul><li>Like a potter who has all of the materials he or she needs, you take the stuff you have done in pre-writing, and put it into a form </li></ul>
  46. 46. Shaping the Essay <ul><li>You make an outline of your thesis, topic sentences, concrete details, and commentary ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Shape it into a lump </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT the finished product yet, just the lump of clay, ready to work with. </li></ul>
  47. 47. First Draft <ul><li>Now you begin to MOLD your essay, making your first creation. </li></ul><ul><li>The ROUGH draft </li></ul>
  48. 48. First Draft <ul><li>Just like any artist, the rough draft or first draft will need to be redone. </li></ul><ul><li>That is the nature of creating good work. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Final Draft <ul><li>The final version of your essay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The beautiful finished product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just like a potter who reuses the clay, you have reused the material from each draft to craft a beautiful essay </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Final Draft <ul><li>This final product includes ALL of the hard work that has gone before </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without all of the previous attempts, it would not be as good as it is now. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Peer Response <ul><li>These are WRITTEN responses and REACTIONS to a partner’s paper. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Peer Response <ul><li>Make sure that your response is SPECIFIC and ACCURATE </li></ul>
  53. 53. Chunk <ul><li>This is the smallest unified group of thoughts you can write </li></ul><ul><li>It is ONE sentence of concrete detail + 2 sentences of commentary </li></ul>
  54. 54. Chunk <ul><li>You will see this formula used to represent a CHUNK </li></ul><ul><li>This means one CONCRETE DETAIL must have TWO sentences of commentary </li></ul>CD:CM 1:2+
  55. 55. Chunk
  56. 56. Topic Sentence <ul><li>Topic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General sentence with a subject and an opinion also called COMMENTARY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Washington is one of the most beautiful states in the country . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: South Park is one of the most popular shows on Comedy Central. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Topic Sentence <ul><li>According to the Schaffer Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every thesis should have a subject and one commentary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every paragraph should start with a thesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analogy: Riding a bicycle with training wheels is like writing with the Schaffer model </li></ul></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Topic Sentence <ul><li>Thesis and Commentary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Write a subject that you have strong feelings about </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Write a commentary statement about it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Sample Thesis Statements <ul><li>Circle the subjects and underline the commentary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes boyfriends are nothing but heartaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I really hate changing schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having divorced parents is awful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The worst day of eighth grade was when I broke my arm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waves are the funnest things to ride </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Sample Thesis Statements <ul><li>Circle the subject and underline the commentary </li></ul><ul><li>Camping is fun because I can get away from most of society </li></ul><ul><li>Being in high school can have its advantages </li></ul><ul><li>I love to watch TV because it’s interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Music is the best thing that ever happened </li></ul><ul><li>Ice Hockey is a hard sport and very painful. </li></ul>