SportsNutrition_Chapter6_Vitamins

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This online lecture reinforces the key pieces of information about vitamins in chapter 6.

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SportsNutrition_Chapter6_Vitamins

  1. 1. Vitamins Chapter 6
  2. 2. What are vitamins? <ul><li>Organic molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Essential for human survival </li></ul><ul><li>Exist in water and fat soluble forms </li></ul>Photo © AbleStock
  3. 3. Vitamin Classification <ul><li>Water Soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B vitamins, choline, and vitamin C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolve in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily transported in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess is excreted in urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low potential for toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fat Soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A, D, E, K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not dissolve in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require dietary fat for transport in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess can be stored in fat tissues of body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher potential for toxicity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. B-Complex Vitamin: Thiamin <ul><li>Also known as B 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men = 1.2 mg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women = 1.1 mg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.5 mg/1,000 kcal expended </li></ul></ul>Source: USDA
  5. 5. B-Complex Vitamin: Thiamin (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle pain and weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beriberi in severe cases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic buildup is rare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL not established </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are supplements needed? </li></ul>
  6. 6. B-Complex Vitamin: Riboflavin <ul><li>Also known as B 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron transport in aerobic energy production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men = 1.3 mg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women = 1.1 mg </li></ul></ul>Source: USDA
  7. 7. B-Complex Vitamin: Riboflavin (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red, cracked lips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sore throat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflamed tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic buildup is rare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL not established </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are supplements needed? </li></ul>
  8. 8. B-Complex Vitamin: Niacin <ul><li>Also known as B 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron transport in aerobic and anaerobic energy production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men = 16 mg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women = 14 mg </li></ul></ul>Source: USDA
  9. 9. B-Complex Vitamin: Niacin (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin rashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pellagra in severe cases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Itchy rashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headaches and nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver complications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL = 35 mg </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. B-Complex Vitamin: B 6 <ul><li>Several pyridox forms </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men and women =1.3 mg </li></ul></ul>Source: USDA
  11. 11. B-Complex Vitamin: B 6 (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiencies rare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms include nausea, convulsions, skin disorders, fatigue, weakness, anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irreversible nerve damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired gait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL = 100 mg </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. B-Complex Vitamin: B 12 <ul><li>Also known as cobalamin </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue growth and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous and cardiovascular health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men and women = 2.4 µg </li></ul></ul>Source: USDA
  13. 13. B-Complex Vitamin: B 12 (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiencies develop slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High homocysteine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurological problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pernicious anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity is rare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL not established </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. B-Complex Vitamin: Folate <ul><li>Also known as folic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell division (e.g., neural tube defects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RBC maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men and women = 400 µg </li></ul></ul>Source: USDA
  15. 15. B-Complex Vitamin: Folate (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural tube defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrocytic anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired immune function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity is rare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL = 1,000 µg </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. B-Complex Vitamin: Biotin <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic energy production from CHOs, fats, proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No RDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AI for men and women = 30 µg </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. B-Complex Vitamin: Biotin (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiencies are rare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermatitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None documented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL not established </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. B-Complex Vitamin: Pantothenic Acid <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic energy production from CHOs, fats, proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No RDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AI for men and women = 5 mg </li></ul></ul>Source: USDA
  19. 19. B-Complex Vitamin: Pantothenic Acid (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep disturbances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cramping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None documented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL not established </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Choline <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle activation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural integrity of cell membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No RDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AI = 550 mg (men) and 425 mg (women) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Choline (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiencies are rare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishy body odor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL = 3,500 mg </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Vitamin C <ul><li>Ascorbic acid or ascorbate </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collagen synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antioxidant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men = 90 mg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women = 75 mg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smokers = +35 mg </li></ul></ul>Source: USDA
  23. 23. Vitamin C (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swollen gums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scurvy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively nontoxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea and diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL = 2,000 mg </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Vitamin A <ul><li>Known as retinoids </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men = 900 µg RAE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women =700 µg RAE </li></ul></ul>Source: USDA
  25. 25. Vitamin A (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiencies rare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Night blindness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperkeratosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: usually only toxic if consuming vitamin A via supplement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blurred vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL = 3,000 µg RAE </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Carotenoids <ul><li>Compounds found in plants </li></ul><ul><li>Not considered vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Some can be converted into vitamin A: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provitamin A carotenoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-provitamin A carotenoids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antioxidant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No RDA/AI established </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Carotenoids (continued) <ul><li>Intake can be increased by consuming: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5–9 servings of fruits and vegetables daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorful fruits and vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking 100% fruit or vegetable juice </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Vitamin D <ul><li>“ Sunshine” vitamin </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls blood calcium levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone growth/ development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI for men and women: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AI (19–50 yo) = 5 µg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AI (51–70 yo) = 10 µg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AI (70+ yo) = 15 µg </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Vitamin D (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rickets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypercalcemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart arrthymias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL = 50 µg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are supplements needed? </li></ul>Source: USDA
  30. 30. Vitamin E <ul><li>Also known as alpha-tocopherol </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antioxidant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA/AI (alpha-tocopherol): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA for men and women = 15 mg </li></ul></ul>Source: USDA
  31. 31. Vitamin E (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiencies rare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of motor coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemolytic anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased blood clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy bruising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL = 1,000 mg </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Vitamin K <ul><li>Belong to the quinone family of compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone mineralization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men = 120 µg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women = 90 µg </li></ul></ul>Source: USDA
  33. 33. Vitamin K (continued) <ul><li>Signs of deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired blood clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive bleeding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None documented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL not established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to monitor Vitamin K intake if taking blood thinner medication. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Antioxidants and Free Radicals
  35. 35. What are phytochemicals? <ul><li>Chemical substances from plants </li></ul><ul><li>Phyto means “plant” </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 50 phytochemicals are consumed in typical American diet </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption is associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease and cancers </li></ul><ul><li>Common sources are fruits, vegetables, and grains </li></ul>
  36. 36. Phytochemicals: Phenolic Compounds <ul><li>Group of varied phytochemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Antioxidant properties </li></ul><ul><li>Protect against cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Most common examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flavonoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phenolic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grapes (wine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teas </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Phytochemicals: Organosulfides <ul><li>Group of phytochemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Anticancer agents </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucosinolates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isothiocyanates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cruciferous (brassica) vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garlic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Onions </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Phytochemicals: Lycopene <ul><li>Classified as a carotenoid </li></ul><ul><li>Antioxidant and anticancer agents </li></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomatoes and tomato products </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Tips for Increasing Phytochemical Intake <ul><ul><ul><li>Serve hot or cold green tea with meals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep red or green grapes washed and ready in the refrigerator for snacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use tomato sauces, pastes, and spaghetti sauce as a basis for meals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sprinkle nuts and seeds on salads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use garlic in cooking, dressings, marinades, and sauces </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Tips for Increasing Phytochemical Intake (continued) <ul><ul><ul><li>Use soy milk instead of dairy milk on cereal or as a beverage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complement all meals with one or two fruits or vegetables. Make half your plate fruits/veggies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use whole grain foods more often than processed grains. Make half your grains whole ones. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Try a new grain recipe that uses bulgar, barley, or oats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eat fruit for dessert such as a baked apple, chopped melon, or chilled berries </li></ul></ul></ul>

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