SportsNutrition_Chapter5_Protein

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Online lecture for chapter 5.

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SportsNutrition_Chapter5_Protein

  1. 1. Proteins Chapter 5
  2. 2. What are proteins? <ul><li>Amino acids linked together </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Protein Structure <ul><li>Peptide bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Amino Acids <ul><li>20 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>9 essential amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Come from diet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>11 nonessential amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Conditionally essential amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tyrosine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cysteine </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Protein Classification <ul><li>Number of amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dipeptide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tripeptide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oligopeptide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. High-Quality Protein <ul><li>A complete protein </li></ul><ul><li>Contains extra amino acids for protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Good digestibility </li></ul><ul><li>Usually from animal-derived foods </li></ul>Photo © Mark Adams/Superstock
  7. 7. Low-Quality Protein <ul><li>An incomplete protein </li></ul><ul><li>One or more limiting amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Usually from plant-derived foods </li></ul>Photos courtesy of the USDA
  8. 8. Complementing Proteins <ul><li>Complementing proteins are incomplete proteins that when eaten together provide a full complement of all essential amino acids. </li></ul>Photo © PhotoDisc
  9. 9. Complementary Protein Combinations <ul><li>Food examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Beans & rice </li></ul><ul><li>Peanut butter sandwich on whole grain bread </li></ul><ul><li>Lentil soup with whole grain bread </li></ul>
  10. 10. Protein Functions <ul><li>Tissue building – builds muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Cell functioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body functioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid balance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy source </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is nitrogen balance? <ul><li>Nitrogen balance is an indicator of nitrogen status and thus protein intake. </li></ul><ul><li>Equals: (Nitrogen in) – (Nitrogen out) </li></ul>
  12. 12. How much protein is needed?
  13. 13. Factors Influencing Protein Requirements <ul><li>Total energy intake </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to lose or gain weight </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate availability </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise intensity and duration </li></ul><ul><li>Training status/fitness level </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary protein quality </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul>
  14. 14. Protein Sources
  15. 15. Questions to Ask About Protein Supplements <ul><li>What is the quantity of protein or amino acids in the product? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the supplement necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Will it enhance performance? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the supplement have any harmful effects? </li></ul>
  16. 16. What should an athlete eat in the hours leading up to competition or training? <ul><li>4 to 24 hours prior to exercise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced high-CHO meals/snacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiar foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHOs, not proteins, should predominate </li></ul></ul>Photo © Photodisc
  17. 17. How much protein should be consumed 4 to 24 hours before competition? <ul><li>Depends on how much time before exercise is initiated </li></ul><ul><li>Lean protein sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 to 6 oz turkey, fish, soy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 to12 fl oz dairy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementing low-fiber plant sources </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. How much protein should be consumed 1 to 4 hours before competition? <ul><li>Focus should be on CHO </li></ul><ul><li>Small amounts of protein okay (i.e., 2–4 oz lean meat) </li></ul><ul><li>Lean protein sources preferable </li></ul>
  19. 19. What about protein consumption during competition? <ul><li>Protein can serve as an energy source. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption during exercise is questionable. </li></ul><ul><li>There is some research support for branched chain amino acids during competition. </li></ul>
  20. 20. What about protein consumption after competition? <ul><li>6 to 20 grams of high-quality protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Casein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Essential amino acids are key. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be consumed within 3 hours after competition. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolyzed protein sources are absorbed more quickly. </li></ul>

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