Fats<br />Chapter 4<br />
What are fats?<br />Lipid molecules<br />Carbon<br />Hydrogen<br />Oxygen<br />Hydrophobic<br />Lipophilic<br />The terms ...
Lipid Classification<br />Triglycerides<br />Most common type of dietary lipid<br />Phospholipids<br />Cell membranes<br /...
Triglycerides<br />Glycerol<br />Forms triglyceride “backbone”<br />Three-carbon molecule<br />Three fatty acids<br />Can ...
Triglyceride Functions<br />Energy source<br />During rest and exercise<br />Energy reserve<br />9 kcal/gram<br />Provides...
Fatty Acids<br />Carbon backbone<br />Length varies<br />SCFA (< 6 carbons)<br />MCFA (6 to 10 carbons)<br />LCFA (> 10 ca...
Fatty Acid Saturation<br />Saturated<br />No double bonds<br />Saturated with hydrogen<br />Solid at room temperature<br /...
Fatty Acid Saturation<br />
Omega Fatty Acids<br />Unsaturated<br />Their name is derived from position of first double bond from methyl end<br />Omeg...
Hydrogenation<br />Addition of hydrogen to unsaturated fat<br />Causes formation of trans fats<br />Fats take on saturated...
Phospholipids<br />Structure<br />Glycerol backbone<br />Two fatty acids + phosphate<br /> Sources<br />Egg yokes, soybean...
Sterols<br />Do not contain fatty acids<br />Have ringed molecular structure<br />Same physical properties as other fats<b...
Artificial Fats<br />Carbohydrate derived<br />Oatrim<br />Protein derived<br />Simplesse<br />Specialty fats<br />Olestra...
Fat Intake<br />No RDA or AI<br />20–35% of total calories<br /> ~ 10% polyunsaturated<br /> ~ 10% monounsaturated<br /> <...
Cholesterol<br />Sources<br />Animals only<br />Components<br />HDL<br />LDL<br />VLDL<br />High levels of LDL increase ri...
Recommended Cholesterol LevelsYes, even athletes can have elevated cholesterol levels!<br />
Guidelines for Lowering Cholesterol<br />Limit saturated fat intake. (Choose oils over solid fat most of the time)<br />Ke...
Bioenergetics of Fat<br />Interesting information but I do not expect you to commit it to memory for this course.  <br />
Fat Intake: Before Exercise<br />Fat Adaptation<br />Short-term<br />Long-term<br /><ul><li>Single High-Fat Pre- Competiti...
Fat Intake: During Exercise<br />Long-Chain Fatty Acids<br /><ul><li>Absorption is slow
Benefits questionable </li></ul>Medium-Chain Fatty Acids<br /><ul><li>Absorption is faster
Benefits questionable;possible gastric upset</li></ul>Recommendations<br />Avoid fats during exercise<br />Photo © Photos....
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SportsNutrition_Chapter4

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SportsNutrition_Chapter4

  1. 1. Fats<br />Chapter 4<br />
  2. 2. What are fats?<br />Lipid molecules<br />Carbon<br />Hydrogen<br />Oxygen<br />Hydrophobic<br />Lipophilic<br />The terms fat and lipid will be used interchangeably in this course.<br />
  3. 3. Lipid Classification<br />Triglycerides<br />Most common type of dietary lipid<br />Phospholipids<br />Cell membranes<br />Water and fat soluble<br />Help emulsify fat so it stays dispersed in watery substances like blood.<br />Sterols<br />
  4. 4. Triglycerides<br />Glycerol<br />Forms triglyceride “backbone”<br />Three-carbon molecule<br />Three fatty acids<br />Can be of different lengths<br />
  5. 5. Triglyceride Functions<br />Energy source<br />During rest and exercise<br />Energy reserve<br />9 kcal/gram<br />Provides protection<br />Cushioning<br />Insulator (thermal/electrical)<br />Vitamin carrier<br />
  6. 6. Fatty Acids<br />Carbon backbone<br />Length varies<br />SCFA (< 6 carbons)<br />MCFA (6 to 10 carbons)<br />LCFA (> 10 carbons) <br />
  7. 7. Fatty Acid Saturation<br />Saturated<br />No double bonds<br />Saturated with hydrogen<br />Solid at room temperature<br />Unsaturated<br />Mono and poly<br />Liquid at room temperature<br />
  8. 8. Fatty Acid Saturation<br />
  9. 9. Omega Fatty Acids<br />Unsaturated<br />Their name is derived from position of first double bond from methyl end<br />Omega 3, 6, 9 fatty acids<br />Omega 3 and 6 are essential fatty acids<br />Linolenic and linoleic acids <br />Form eicosanoids <br />If you would like additional information about omega-3 fatty acids, refer to the article in the extra reading learning folder. <br />
  10. 10. Hydrogenation<br />Addition of hydrogen to unsaturated fat<br />Causes formation of trans fats<br />Fats take on saturated properties<br />Raises blood cholesterol levels which is associated with increased risk for heart attack and stroke.<br />
  11. 11. Phospholipids<br />Structure<br />Glycerol backbone<br />Two fatty acids + phosphate<br /> Sources<br />Egg yokes, soybeans, and peanuts<br />Functions<br />Cell membranes<br />Emulsifiers<br />Transporters <br />
  12. 12. Sterols<br />Do not contain fatty acids<br />Have ringed molecular structure<br />Same physical properties as other fats<br />Cholesterol is most common sterol<br />
  13. 13. Artificial Fats<br />Carbohydrate derived<br />Oatrim<br />Protein derived<br />Simplesse<br />Specialty fats<br />Olestra (Olean)<br />Salatrim (Benefat)<br />Photo © J. Helgason/ShutterStock, Inc.<br />
  14. 14. Fat Intake<br />No RDA or AI<br />20–35% of total calories<br /> ~ 10% polyunsaturated<br /> ~ 10% monounsaturated<br /> < 10% saturated<br />Avoid trans fats<br />
  15. 15. Cholesterol<br />Sources<br />Animals only<br />Components<br />HDL<br />LDL<br />VLDL<br />High levels of LDL increase risk for cardiovascular disease<br />
  16. 16. Recommended Cholesterol LevelsYes, even athletes can have elevated cholesterol levels!<br />
  17. 17. Guidelines for Lowering Cholesterol<br />Limit saturated fat intake. (Choose oils over solid fat most of the time)<br />Keep daily cholesterol intake < 300 mg. (Choose fats from plant sources like canola and olive oil over animal sources like butter and whole milk)<br />Limit trans fat intake. (Read the ingredient list. If partially hydrogenated oil is listed then the product contains trans fats.)<br />Maintain active lifestyle.<br />Increase fruit and vegetable intake. (Make half your plate fruits and vegetables!)<br />
  18. 18. Bioenergetics of Fat<br />Interesting information but I do not expect you to commit it to memory for this course. <br />
  19. 19. Fat Intake: Before Exercise<br />Fat Adaptation<br />Short-term<br />Long-term<br /><ul><li>Single High-Fat Pre- Competition Meal</li></ul>Recommendations<br />Include fats but keep to a minimum<br />Experiment with different fat content<br />Photo © Photos.com<br />
  20. 20. Fat Intake: During Exercise<br />Long-Chain Fatty Acids<br /><ul><li>Absorption is slow
  21. 21. Benefits questionable </li></ul>Medium-Chain Fatty Acids<br /><ul><li>Absorption is faster
  22. 22. Benefits questionable;possible gastric upset</li></ul>Recommendations<br />Avoid fats during exercise<br />Photo © Photos.com<br />
  23. 23. Fat Intake: After Exercise<br />Normal dietary recommendations for fats apply<br /><ul><li>20–35% fat content
  24. 24. Unsaturated fats</li></ul>Carbohydrates should predominate<br />Consume post-exercise meal ASAP<br />Photo © Photos.com<br />
  25. 25. FATS<br />What can you take away from this chapter?<br />What stands out for you?<br />Are there any changes you would like to make to your sports nutrition diet now that you have this new information?<br />

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