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The Nature of Experiential
Often dysfunctional, always incomplete
Need to use present experience to test our
beliefs, correcting the misinterpretations we’ve
We often manipulate experience to fit our beliefs
We usually see and hear selectively
Stop and Think
Can you recall a personally
significant learning experience?
In formal education or in the school of life?
What was it? What were the
circumstances surrounding the experience?
Why was it significant to you?
What Makes Learning Significant?
(experience attended to
and reflected on)
(can involve expansion but is
not subjectively valued)
• Subjectively valued
• Has personal impact
involving expansion or
Informal and Incidental Learning
Informal Learning: Can be planned or unplanned,
but usually conscious awareness that learning is
Incidental Learning: A by-product of some other
activity; usually unintentional, unexamined, and
embedded in closely held belief systems
Marsick and Watkins’ definitions, 1990, 1992
Requires becoming aware of conscious learning
in a non-routine situation as people reflect on
When incidental learning occurs, people often
act with little or no reflection, and the learning is
thus embedded in their action
To bring awareness of learning to surface
requires making tacit assumptions explicit;
Langer calls this concept “mindfulness”
What proportion of our learning
do you think is informal and
incidental as compared to
What are the implications of this
for the learners you teach?
What do we mean by “reflective
concept of critical
David Boud’s ideas
What strategies do you use to
engage learners in reflective
End-of-course reflective essays
Blogs as reflective learning journals
Practices to Enhance Student Blogging
Explain the “HOW” of
reflective practice with
Create some structure:
your own blog!
Steps in the Digital Storytelling
First, write the story –
aim for 300 words
Share the story orally in
a story circle with peers
Continue to refine and
reduce the story to its
key elements; peer
Create a storyboard
Remember, it’s an
Search free digital media sites for
photos licensed under the Creative
Commons for remixing and
Attribution/ Share Alike
Choose music to create tone and
set the emotion of the story
Use an editor such as iMovie or
WeVideo to arrange photos, music,
transitions, and narration to create
the desired effect
Save your work as a file that can be
uploaded to YouTube
Steps in the Digital Storytelling
What is the Creative Commons?
A San Francisco non-
founded in 2002 that
licenses that are free
to the public,
designed to expand
the range of creative
works for others to
In Conclusion, Reflective Practice …
Engages students in deeper-level learning
Can challenge taken-for-granted
Generates social learning when carried out in
a supportive community of student bloggers
Can be creative and emotionally expressive
when learners are engaged in digital storytelling
References for this presentation
Boud, D. (2001, Summer). Using journal writing to enhance reflective practice. New Directions for Adult
and Continuing Education, 90, 9-17.
Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (1985). (Eds.). Reflection: Turning experience into learning. New York:
Brookfield, S. D. (1987). Developing critical thinkers: Challenging adults to explore alternative ways of
thinking and acting. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Brookfield, S. D. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Brookfield, S. D. (1997, Fall). Accessing critical thinking. New Directions for Adult and Continuing
Education, 74, 17-29.
Carter, T. J. (2010, in press). Blogging as reflective practice in the graduate classroom. In K. King & T. Cox
(Eds.), Teaching with digital media: Best practices and innovations in higher education. Charlotte,
NC: Information Age Publications.
Hull, G. A., & Katz, M. (2006, August). Crafting an agentive self: Case studies of digital storytelling.
Research in the Teaching of English, 41(1), 43-81.
McLellan, H. (2008, October). Digital storytelling: Expanding media possibilities for learning.
Educational Technology, 18-21.
Robin, B. R. (2008). Digital storytelling: A powerful technology tool for the 21st
Theory into Practice, 47, 220-228. doi: 10.1080/00405840802153916
Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.
Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Wilson, A. L. (2009, Fall). Reflecting on reflecting on practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing
Education, 123, 75-85.