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Class 4 adlt 670 instructional strategies


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Class 4 adlt 670 instructional strategies

  1. 1. Making Learning Interactive Engaging Learners with Instructional Strategies ADLT 670, Class Session 4
  2. 2. A Proverb Tell me, I will forget Show me, I may remember Involve me, and I will understand Learners learn from what they do, not what YOU do!
  3. 3. Agenda for Tonight  Where are we in design of a project for a new or revised curriculum?  Engaging adult learners – Knowles’ principles of andragogy  Instructional strategies for “teaching on the fly”  Gaining formative feedback from learners  Formation of groups for presentations on Oct 23
  4. 4. Characteristics of Adult Learners The Need to Know • Adults need to know WHY The Learner’s Self-Concept • Adults have a self-concept of being responsible for their own decisions • Adults have a deep psychological need to be seen by others and treated as capable of self-direction Malcolm Knowles’ Principles of Andragogy
  5. 5. Characteristics of Adult Learners The Role of Experience • Adults come to the learning environment with different types of experience • The richest resources for learning reside in learners themselves • Greater experience poses a potential negative consequences – mental habits, biases, presuppositions • Any situation in which adults’ experience is ignored or devalued is perceived as rejection of SELF
  6. 6. Characteristics of Adult Learners Readiness to Learn • Adults are oriented to problem-solving and real-life situations • One source of “readiness to learn” is tasks associated with moving from one developmental stage to another • Seek the “teachable moment”
  7. 7. Characteristics of Adult Learners Orientation to Learning • In contrast to younger students, adults are life-centered and not subject centered • They are motivated to devote energy help them perform tasks or deal with problems Motivation • Most potent motivators are internal (increased job satisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life) The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species – Malcolm Knowles, 1973
  8. 8. The 15-Minute Rule  Adult attention span – How long is it?  Dyads or triads to explore a question  Use a mini-case  Employ clicker or polling questions  Use one-minute papers as formative assessment / Muddiest point papers
  9. 9. Learning Pyramid RETENTION 5% 10% 20% 30% METHOD Lecture Reading Audiovisual Demonstration 50% 75% 90% Discussion Group Practice Group Teach Others
  10. 10. Types of Input: Instructional Strategies Learning Methods  Lecture  Forums, panels, symposiums  Interactive TV, video  Discussion  Case Studies / Group Projects  Online/hybrid learning  Learning Contracts  Critical Thinking Techniques  Demonstration / Simulation  Mentoring  Learners teach the content Level of Engagement  Low  Low  Moderate  Moderate  Moderate  Moderate to High  Moderate to High  Moderate to High  Moderate to High  Moderate to High  High
  11. 11. Stages in the Development of Mastery Unconscious Incompetence Conscious Incompetence Conscious Competence Unconscious Competence Novice Expert
  12. 12. Quick and Easy Strategies for Teaching on the Fly
  13. 13. What are the three strategies?  Concept Maps  Jane Vella’s Four I’s  Poll Everywhere
  14. 14. What is a Concept Map? Graphical tool for organizing knowledge
  15. 15. Why? Query learners on what they know about a topic Use as a platform for self- directed learning Engage in collaborative knowledge sharing Serve as a basis for “testing” understanding Allows more junior learners to learn from experienced learners Experiential, high engagement strategy
  16. 16. What goes into a Concept Map? A question that you want learners to explore that involves more than a “yes” or “no” answer Includes concepts (boxes or circles) and the relationships between concepts (connecting lines) Relationships between concepts are expressed as propositional statements
  17. 17. Concept maps are intended to be constructed hierarchically – from top to bottom, with more general concepts toward the top Propositions are statements about some naturally occurring (or constructed) object or event Propositions form a meaningful statement about the connection between concepts – they are often verbs or verb phrases 1. Low tech: Draw on paper or whiteboard 2. High tech: Use CMap download 3. Other strategies: tools and apps Key Points in Constructing a Concept Map
  18. 18. How Concept Maps Function 1. Promotes meaningful learning 2. Provides an additional resource for learning 3. Enables provision of feedback to students 4. Allows for assessment of learning and performance, both formative and summative
  19. 19. GROUP ACTIVITY  Within a small group discuss this question:  What are the most challenging concepts for learners in creating a curricular design project?
  20. 20. What are the most challenging concepts for learners in creating a curricular design project? concept Can be characterized by Should be differentiated by Can be mistaken as Presents as
  21. 21. An example of a Concept Map
  22. 22. Strategies for Making Lecture Interactive Just-in-Time Teaching Involves learner in pre-class preparation with strategies to inform faculty what needs to be emphasized in lecture Clickers /Polling, One-Minute Paper, etc Involves small groups/pairs during lecture with exercises that aid in absorption of new material Jane Vella’s Four I’s A strategy for structuring class time to assess learner knowledge/readiness, provide content, and examine understanding and ability to apply content
  23. 23. Who is Dr. Jane Vella? What are the Four I’s? our-team/dr.-jane-vella
  24. 24. Jane Vella’s 4 Learning Tasks Inductive work – connects learners with what they already know Input – course content; new material Implementation – lets learners try it out Integration – asks learners how they will integrate new learning into their developing knowledge of medicine and medical practice
  25. 25. Inductive Tasks Invites learners to clarify their present understanding of a topic Begins with words such as “describe, tell, define, sketch, show, name, etc. Draws upon the lives and experiences of the learners Is an open question often based on asking learners to compare.
  26. 26. Input is always about new content for the learner. It is your chance as the instructor to share new knowledge, demonstrate new skills or attitudes, or engage learners in making sense of new or unusual situations. INPUT TASKS
  27. 27. Implementation Tasks Invites learners to practice and use new knowledge and skills Is the immediate response to the instructor’s Input task Purpose is to get feedback from the instructor on the learners’s implementation of the task
  28. 28. Occurs at the end of a learning encounter Allows learners to organize their knowledge in the presence of the instructor Provides TRANSFER, which is use of new knowledge, skills, or attitudes Without integration, you leave it to chance as to whether learners can organize new knowledge with what is already known Integration Tasks
  29. 29. Think of something you have tried to teach on the fly to a learner in the clinical setting How have you taught this in the past? What would it look like if you used Jane Vella’s four I’s: • Inductive work • Input, • Implementation, • Integration PRACTICE with a Partner
  30. 30. Three On the Fly Teaching Strategies When would you use each one? Which do you prefer? Which do you think you can implement TODAY?
  31. 31. Involving Your Learners in Real Time Poll Everywhere: Up to 40 learners on a free account
  32. 32. How might you use Poll Everywhere? On your iPad or phone, in the hallway outside a patient room or in a conference room after rounds In any small group setting to increase engagement When you want to pose a question and have all learners weigh in (especially good for open-ended responses) When you want to make learners’ thinking visible When you assign a journal article or other reading, and want to see who’s done their “homework”
  33. 33. Strategies for Making Lectures Interactive  Think-Pair-Share  The One-Minute Paper  The Muddiest Point  Stephen Brookfield’s Critical Incident Questionnaire (the CIQ)  Just-in-Time Teaching
  34. 34. A Strategy for Garnering Learner Feedback  Use an index card  Write three words  Stop  Start  Continue  Complete with a sentence for each about our course
  35. 35. Strategies to Ensure that Learners are Prepared Just-in-Time Teaching  Short survey –any data collection tool  Develop 3 questions based on assigned readings  Two should be related to CONTENT  One question: What did you find most difficult or confusing about today’s readings?  Set deadline for completion; review ahead of group discussion  Allows you, the instructor, to tailor your talk to the needs of the group
  36. 36. Your JiTT Results Q 1: Which of the strategies described in your text appear to be most challenging to implement? Why?  Simulation  Audio or video review of learners  TBL  TBL
  37. 37. JiTT Q 2: Which of the strategies described in your text seem to be most engaging for learners? Why?  Problem-based learning (PBL)  Online learning resources  PBL and Inquiry-based learning  Simulation and supervised clinical experiences
  38. 38. JiTT Q 3: What concept or teaching introduced was most confusing or difficult for you to understand from the reading?  TBL  Reflection on experience  How to get time and needed resources  Not sure – a bit confused about measuring attitudinal changes
  39. 39. High Engagement Team Strategies Team-Based Learning (TBL) Teams work on two graded exercises to test understanding of pre-reading and then apply what they learned Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) An inductive learning process in which learners discover major concepts Case-Based Teaching Uses a story of real events or problems so learners experience the complexity involved in practice situations
  40. 40. Stephen Brookfield’s CIQ  At what moment in this class were you most engaged as a learner?  At what moment were you most distanced as a learner?  What action that anyone in the room took this week did you find most affirming or helpful?  What action that anyone in the room took this week did you find most puzzling or confusing?  What surprised you the most about class this week?
  41. 41. Your Turn to Decide for October 23  Choose a strategy to present / choose your group  Stephen Brookfield’s Critical Practice Audit  Case-based Learning (CBL)  Team-based learning  Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL)  The flipped classroom