ADLT 601 – Knowles’ concepts of Andragogy,  Informal and Incidental Learning September 3, 2009
Agenda
Houles’ Typology of Learners Goal  Oriented  Activity Oriented Learning  Oriented
Informal and Incidental Learning from Experience
Informal and Incidental Learning from Experience Informal Learning : Can be planned or unplanned, but usually conscious aw...
Studies on Informal Learning <ul><li>20% occurs in classroom; 80% in informal experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Center...
Non Learning <ul><li>Presumption  - the typical response to the world and the basis of most social living experiences; a t...
Edward Cell (1984) writes about  Experiential Learning <ul><li>All significant experiential learning is a CHANGE in the le...
Knowles’ Principles of Andragogy <ul><li>The learners feel a need to learn </li></ul><ul><li>The learning environment is c...
Pedagogical  Andragogical Assumptions  Assumptions <ul><li>Postponed time application </li></ul><ul><li>Subject-centered o...
Pedagogical  Andragogical Design Factors  Design Factors <ul><li>Teacher formulates objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Material ...
Grow’s Stages in Learning Autonomy Stage Student Teacher  Examples Stage 1 Dependent Authority,  coach Coaching with immed...
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Adlt 601 Class Session 3

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Adlt 601 Class Session 3

  1. 1. ADLT 601 – Knowles’ concepts of Andragogy, Informal and Incidental Learning September 3, 2009
  2. 2. Agenda
  3. 3. Houles’ Typology of Learners Goal Oriented Activity Oriented Learning Oriented
  4. 4. Informal and Incidental Learning from Experience
  5. 5. Informal and Incidental Learning from Experience Informal Learning : Can be planned or unplanned, but usually conscious awareness that learning is taking place Incidental Learning : A by-product of some other activity; usually unintentional, unexamined, and embedded in closely held belief systems Marsick and Watkins’ definitions, 1990, 1992
  6. 6. Studies on Informal Learning <ul><li>20% occurs in classroom; 80% in informal experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Center for Creative Leadership, 1988 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wick -1989, 1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zemke, 1988 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Non Learning <ul><li>Presumption - the typical response to the world and the basis of most social living experiences; a trust that the world will not change </li></ul><ul><li>Non-consideration - a variety of reasons that people do not respond to a learning situation </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection - some people have an experience, but reject the possibility of learning from it </li></ul>
  8. 8. Edward Cell (1984) writes about Experiential Learning <ul><li>All significant experiential learning is a CHANGE in the learner -- a change in behavior, in interpretation, in autonomy, or in creativity, or a combination of these </li></ul>
  9. 9. Knowles’ Principles of Andragogy <ul><li>The learners feel a need to learn </li></ul><ul><li>The learning environment is characterized by mutual respect and trust and acceptance of differences </li></ul><ul><li>The learners perceive the goals of the learning experience to be their goals </li></ul><ul><li>The learners share responsibility for planning </li></ul><ul><li>The learners participate actively </li></ul><ul><li>The learning process makes use of learners’ experiences </li></ul><ul><li>The learners have a sense of progress towards goals </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pedagogical Andragogical Assumptions Assumptions <ul><li>Postponed time application </li></ul><ul><li>Subject-centered orientation to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Self concept is one of dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Experience is of little value </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness to learn depends on biological development </li></ul><ul><li>Immediacy of time application </li></ul><ul><li>Problem centered orientation to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Self concept is toward increasing self-directedness </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are a rich resource for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness depends on developmental tasks of social roles </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pedagogical Andragogical Design Factors Design Factors <ul><li>Teacher formulates objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Material is studied by content units </li></ul><ul><li>Transmittal techniques used </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation by teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Authority oriented, formal climate, often competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher plans learning experience </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher diagnoses needs </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher evaluates </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual negotiation of objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Material sequenced in terms of learner readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential, inquiry techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Climate characterized by mutuality, respect, collaboration, and informality </li></ul><ul><li>Mutually planned learning experience </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual self-diagnosis of needs </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual evaluation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Grow’s Stages in Learning Autonomy Stage Student Teacher Examples Stage 1 Dependent Authority, coach Coaching with immediate feedback, drill. Informational lecture. Overcoming deficiencies and resistance Stage 2 Interested Motivator, guide Inspiring lecture plus guided discussion; goal-setting and learning strategies Stage 3 Involved Facilitator Discussion facilitated by teacher who participates as an equal Stage 4 Self-directed Consultant, delegator Self-directed work group, dissertation, internship

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