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Kampung Jayengaten


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The emergence and disappearance of a kampung in Semarang, Indonesia.

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Kampung Jayengaten

  1. 1. International workshop Indonesian urban kampongs: targets of state policy or abandoned zones, Surabaya, 19-22 January 2010 Kampung Jayengaten: The emergence and disappearance of a kampung in Semarang Tjahjono Rahardjo (Universitas Katolik Soegijapranata) Siti Rahma Mary Herwati (Lembaga Bantuan Hukum Semarang)
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Tasripin </li></ul><ul><li>Kampung Jayengaten </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence and consolidation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eviction and terror </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Semarang became a significant port city after Sunan Amangkurat II of Mataram ceded it in 1678 to the United Dutch East Indian Company (VOC) </li></ul><ul><li>Semarang became a trade centre and the seat of the governor of Java’s northeast coast </li></ul><ul><li>By mid 18th century, Semarang became one of the most important port cities in Java, second only to Batavia </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background <ul><li>As a trading centre, Semarang grew rapidly; in the beginning of the 19th century, its population was 22,000 </li></ul><ul><li>By the turn of the 20th century the population of Semarang had reached 97,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>This rapid population growth created its own problems </li></ul>
  5. 5. Background <ul><li>The influx of people, mostly Indonesians, caused the native settlements to became more crowded and living conditions in them worsened </li></ul><ul><li>T hey evolved into kampungs (spontaneous, overcrowded and under serviced urban settlements) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Tasripin (died 1919) <ul><li>One of the richest people in Semarang, Tasripin owned large tracts of properties in central and northern Semarang, one of them was Kampung Jayengaten </li></ul>
  7. 7. Kampung Jayengaten <ul><li>In the 1980s Tasripin rented out Jayengaten (5440 sqm) to tenants who build their houses on it </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1974 and 1989 part of the land (1366 sqm) was bought by five residents. The remaining 4074 sqm was bought by Hendra Soegiarto </li></ul><ul><li>Hendra needed the land for a hotel car park </li></ul>
  8. 8. Kampung Jayengaten <ul><li>The 50 tenants were ordered to leave, but because the rent agreement between them and Tasripin’s heirs was still effective, they refused </li></ul>
  9. 9. Kampung Jayengaten <ul><li>Hendra used legal as well as non-legal measures to force the tenants to move out </li></ul><ul><li>The people fought back in court </li></ul><ul><li>They also forged alliances with students and other civil society organizations. They conducted demonstrations, petitioned local legislators, made statements to the media, and declared that they would boycott the general elections </li></ul>
  10. 10. Kampung Jayengaten <ul><li>After a long and protracted battle, a series of meetings were held in May and June 2006 mediated by the Vice Mayor of Semarang. Eventually, the residents agreed to move out </li></ul><ul><li>But there are still the five landowners who remain an obstacle in the development of the car park </li></ul><ul><li>Now, they are terrorized to the extent that they will have to sell their land </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conclusion <ul><li>The story of Jayengaten is not unique, as private investors are often given preferential treatment </li></ul><ul><li>At best, the government believes that bringing in more investments will automatically bring welfare to the people </li></ul><ul><li>But in some cases, attracting more investment is seen as an opportunity to make shady dealings with investors </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>After years of turmoil, the residents of Jayengaten lost their battle, and now, have moved out of their kampung . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Entrance to Kampung Jayengaten
  14. 14. Pile driving and damaged house
  15. 15. Two of the four remaining houses
  16. 16. Access ‘road’, barely wide enough for two people to pass
  17. 17. Wall terror
  18. 18. The mosque, now located within the car park
  19. 19. Executive Lounge, Hotel Gumaya. Kampung Jayengaten can be seen from the terrace
  20. 20. Presidential Suite, Hotel Gumaya. Kampung Jayengaten is clearly visible from its windows.