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  1. 1. Extending the MOOCversity A Mulit-layered and Diversified Lens for MOOC Research Tanja Jadin & Martina Gaisch
  2. 2. MOOC: …“connecting, interacting, and sharing across diverse cultures, attitudes and skill set…“ (McAuley et al, 2010) EMOOCs 2014, Lausanne Page Page 2 2
  3. 3. One size fits all? America = German? EMOOCs 2014, Lausanne Page Page 3 3
  4. 4. What about different cultures? In terms of learning culture, institutional culture, cultural differences? EMOOCs 2014, Lausanne Page Page 4 4
  5. 5. Short Overview Learning Culture & MOOCs Behaviorism and xMOOCs Drill & Practice, programmed instruction: quizzes and immediate feedback Changing behavior through reinforcement Connectivism and cMOOCs To know where the information can be found Impact of networks Considering more tools for collaborating, communication and learning Constructivism and Web 2.0 Inquiry and problem-based learning Situated learning Learning in groups EMOOCs 2014, Lausanne Page Page 5 5
  6. 6. Trialogical Learning (Paavola, Lipponen and Hakkarainen (2004) Based on Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) including the work of Engeström (expansive learning), Nonaka and Takeuchis's model of knowledge creation and the theoretical considerations of Scardamelia and Bereiter (knowledge building) Three metaphors of learning: the acquisition metaphor: individual learning, learning facts the participation metaphor: interaction with others the knowledge-creation metaphor: interaction through shared objects In the sense of cultural psychology and the approach of trialogical learning, MOOCs can be enhanced through the deliberately use of shared artifacts and knowledge creation. EMOOCs 2014, Lausanne Page Page 6 6
  7. 7. Shared Artifacts in MOOCs MOOC “The Future of Storytelling” (iversity). Creative task of the week: “Think about what you remember most about stories” Shared artifact with 90 comments Picture by Ana Paula Pellegrino EMOOCs 2014, Lausanne Page Page 7 7
  8. 8. Introduction of Enhanced MOOC Enhanced means… considering knowledge creation through collaborative development of shared artifacts transforming social practices during learning by incorporating culturesensitive material diversified and customized learning material culture-sensitive distribution of content EMOOCs 2014, Lausanne Page Page 8 8
  9. 9. Cultural Difference (Hofstede et al., 1991, Hall, 1984) Individualism vs. Collectivism Individualism: everyone is expected to look after himself/herself Collectivism: strong ties between individuals, strong in-groups High Context vs. Low-Context High Context: the information is coded in the message, need to read between the lines Low-Context: the information is explicitly given, no reading between the lines necessary Considerations of Space Personal space, proximity, intimacy EMOOCs 2014, Lausanne Page Page 9 9
  10. 10. Summary Learning Metaphor Learning Approach Focus Learning Environment Culture xMOOCs Knowledge Acquisition cMOOCs Knowledge Participation Behaviorism eMOOCs Knowledge Creation Connectivism Constructivism and Cultural Psychology Concepts, Facts Collaboration Shared Objects, Mediated Artifacts Video Lecture Video Lecture Diversified and Quizzes, Peer Grading, incl. Web 2.0 i.e. Blogs, Customized Learning Discussion Boards Microblogs; Social Media Material; Culture-sensitive Content Epistemological Culture, More Pedagogically Epistemologically in a Technical Tradition Driven, in the Tradition of Diverse, both (ICT, Mathematics) the e-learning Community Pedagogically and Culturally Driven, Low-context High-context Based on Psychological Theories Low-context and Highcontext EMOOCs 2014, Lausanne Page 10 Page 10
  11. 11. Reflection and Discussion Further research is needed to test our assumptions Role of shared artifacts and mediating tools in learning with MOOCs Considering different cultures and their acceptance and usage of MOOCs What about offering different possibilities of learning in line with the dimensions stated? EMOOCs 2014, Lausanne Page 11 Page 11
  12. 12. If we teach today as we taught yesterday, we rob our children of tomorrow. (John Dewey) Prof.(FH) Mag. Dr. Tanja Jadin University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria EMOOCs 2014, Lausanne Page 12 Page 12
  13. 13. References Hall, E. T. (1984). The dance of life: The other dimension of time. New York: Anchor Books. Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (Vol. 2). London: McGraw-Hill. McAuley, A., Stewart, B., Siemens, G. & Courmier, D. (2010). The MOOC Model for Digital Practice. Retrieved from Paavola, S., Lipponen, L. & Hakkarainen, K. (2004). Models of Innovative Knowledge Communities and Three Metaphors of Learning. Review of Educational Research, 74(4), pp. 557-576. EMOOCs 2014, Lausanne Page 13 Page 13