Individual behavior

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Individual behavior

  1. 1. Individual Behavior Individual Behavior Companies who are looking for employees look for individual characteristics that will improve the chances of success Individual differences exist – Biographical characteristics – Abilities – Personality – Perception – Attitudes – Emotions – Moods Each interacts with the other and with the task to impact the way the employee does the job© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–1
  2. 2. Biographical Characteristics Biographical CharacteristicsBiographical CharacteristicsPersonal characteristics—such as age,gender, and marital status—that are objectiveand easily obtained from personnel records.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–2
  3. 3. Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities. Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–3
  4. 4. Physical Abilities Physical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–4
  5. 5. Nine Physical Abilities Nine Physical Abilities Strength Factors Strength Factors 1. Dynamic strength 1. Dynamic strength 2. Trunk strength 2. Trunk strength 3. Static strength 3. Static strength 4. Explosive strength Flexibility Factors 4. Explosive strength Flexibility Factors 5. Extent flexibility 5. Extent flexibility 6. Dynamic flexibility 6. Dynamic flexibility Other Factors Other Factors 7. Body coordination 7. Body coordination Source: Adapted from 8. Balance 8. Balance HRMagazine published by the Society for Human Resource Management, 9. Stamina 9. Stamina Alexandria, VA. E X H I B I T 2–2 E X H I B I T 2–2© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–5
  6. 6. Basic Physical Abilities Basic Physical Abilities Strength Factors1. Dynamic strength : Ability to exert muscular force repeatedly2. Trunk strength : Ability to exert muscular strength using the trunk (particularly abdominal) muscles.3. Static strength : Ability to exert force against external objects.4. Explosive strength : Ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–6
  7. 7.  Flexibility Factors1. Extent flexibility : Ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible2. Dynamic flexibility : Ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements Other Factors1. Body coordination : Ability to coordinate the simultaneously actions of different parts of the body2. Balance : Ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance3. Stamina : Ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–7
  8. 8. The Ability-Job Fit The Ability-Job Fit Ability-Job Employee’s Fit Job’s Ability Abilities Requirements© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–8
  9. 9. Learning Learning Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Learning Learning ••Involves change Involves change ••Is relatively permanent Is relatively permanent ••Is acquired through experience Is acquired through experience© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–9
  10. 10. Theories of Learning Theories of Learning Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. Key Concepts Key Concepts ••Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus ••Unconditioned response Unconditioned response ••Conditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus ••Conditioned response Conditioned response© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–10
  11. 11. Classical conditioning Classical conditioning a form of learning in which a response is elicited by a neutral stimulus which previously had been repeatedly presented in conjunction with the stimulus that originally elicited the response. Called also respondent conditioning, Pavlovian conditioning. The concept had its beginnings in experimental techniques for the study of reflexes. The traditional procedure is based on the work of Ivan P. Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. In this technique the experimental subject is a dog that is harnessed in a sound-shielded room. The neutral stimulus is the sound of a metronome or bell which occurs each time the dog is presented with food, and the response is the production of saliva by the dog. Eventually the sound of the bell or metronome produces salivation, even though the stimulus that originally elicited the response (the food) is no longer presented.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–11
  12. 12.  Stimulation Stimulation is the action of various agents (stimuli) on muscles, nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which activity is evoked; especially, the nervous impulse produced by various agents on nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which the part connected with the nerve is thrown into a state of activity© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–12
  13. 13. Unconditioned stimulus & Conditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus & Conditioned stimulus In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry. In this example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned stimulus. In Classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–13
  14. 14. Unconditioned and conditioned response Unconditioned and conditioned response In classical conditioning, the unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus. For example, if the smell of food is the unconditioned stimulus, the feeling of hunger in response to the smell of food is the unconditioned response In classical conditioning, the conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–14
  15. 15. Source: The Far Side ® by Gary Larson © 1993 Far Works, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission. E X H I B I T 2–3 E X H I B I T 2–3© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–15
  16. 16. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–16
  17. 17. Theories of Learning (cont’d) Theories of Learning (cont’d) Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Key Concepts Key Concepts ••Reflexive (unlearned) behavior Reflexive (unlearned) behavior ••Conditioned (learned) behavior Conditioned (learned) behavior ••Reinforcement Reinforcement© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–17
  18. 18.  The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individuals response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem. When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond. The distinctive characteristic of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviorism is that the organism can emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to an external stimulus© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–18
  19. 19. Theories of Learning (cont’d) Theories of Learning (cont’d) Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation and direct experience. Key Concepts Key Concepts ••Attentional processes Attentional processes ••Retention processes Retention processes ••Motor reproduction processes Motor reproduction processes ••Reinforcement processes Reinforcement processes© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–19
  20. 20. Theories of Learning (cont’d) Theories of Learning (cont’d) Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. Key Concepts Key Concepts ••Reinforcement is required to change behavior. Reinforcement is required to change behavior. ••Some rewards are more effective than others. Some rewards are more effective than others. ••The timing of reinforcement affects learning The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. speed and permanence.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–20
  21. 21. Types of Reinforcement Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforcement – Providing a reward for a desired behavior. Negative reinforcement – Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs. Punishment – Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior. Extinction – Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–21
  22. 22. VALUES AND VALUES AND ATTITUDE ATTITUDE© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–22
  23. 23.  If you want to understand a person’s behavior, you must understand his or her values. Values are basic convictions (notions) about what is right and wrong.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–23
  24. 24. Importance of Values Importance of Values Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals and cultures. Influence our perception of the world around us. Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong.” Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–24
  25. 25. Value system Value system Value System A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. Source of our Value Systems – A significant portion is genetically determined. – Other factors include national culture, parents, teachers, friends, and similar environmental influences. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–25
  26. 26. VALUES VALUESValues differ between generations.Values differ between regions.Values differ between cultures. Terminal values are the end-state we hope to achieve in life. Instrumental values are means of achieving these terminal values.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–26
  27. 27. Values in Values in the the Rokeach Rokeach Survey Survey Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973). E X H I B I T 3–1 E X H I B I T 3–1© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–27
  28. 28. Attitude Attitude – Are influenced by values and are acquired from the same sources as values. – Are more specific and less stable than values. – An attitude is a predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one’s environment© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–28
  29. 29. Attitude Attitude An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individuals degree of like or dislike for an item. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event-- this is often referred to as the attitude object. People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object, meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question. Attitudes are judgments. They develop on the ABC model (affect, behavior, and cognition). The affective response is an emotional response that expresses an individuals degree of preference for an entity. The behavioral intention is a verbal indication or typical behavioral tendency of an individual. The cognitive response is a cognitive evaluation of the entity that constitutes an individuals beliefs about the object. Most attitudes are the result of either direct experience or observational learning from the environment.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–29
  30. 30. Types of Attitudes Types of AttitudesJob Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job.Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth.Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–30
  31. 31. An Application: Attitude Surveys An Application: Attitude SurveysAttitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–31
  32. 32. Sample Attitude Survey Sample Attitude Survey© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–32
  33. 33. Personality. Personality. The overall profile or combination of characteristics that capture the unique nature of a person as that person reacts and interacts with others. – Combines a set of physical and mental characteristics that reflect how a person looks, thinks, acts, and feels. – Predictable relationships are expected between people’s personalities and their behaviors.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–33
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  35. 35. What is personality What is personality Heredity and environment. – Heredity sets the limits on the development of personality characteristics. – Environment determines development within these limits.  – About a 50-50 heredity-environment split. – Cultural values and norms play a substantial role in the development of personality. – Social factors include family life, religion, and many kinds of formal and informal groups. – Situational factors reflect the opportunities or constraints imposed by the operational context.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–35
  36. 36. Big Five” personality dimensions Big Five” personality dimensions – Extraversion • Being outgoing, sociable, assertive. – Agreeableness. • Being good-natured, trusting, cooperative. – Conscientiousness. • Being responsible, dependable, persistent. – Emotional stability. • Being unworried, secure, relaxed. – Openness to experience. • Being imaginative, curious, broad-minded.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–36
  37. 37. Major personality attributes influencing OB Major personality attributes influencing OB  Locus of control. A person’s perception of the source of his or her fate is termed locus of control. • The extent to which a person feels able to control his/her own life. • Externals. – More extraverted in their interpersonal relationships and more oriented toward the world around them. • Internals. – More introverted and more oriented towards their own feelings and ideas.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–37
  38. 38. machiavellianism machiavellianism People with a high-Machiavellian personality: – Approach situations logically and thoughtfully. – Are capable of lying to achieve personal goals. – Are rarely swayed by loyalty, friendships, past promises, or others’ opinions. – Are skilled at influencing others. – Try to exploit loosely structured situations.. People with a low- Machiavellian personality: – Accept direction imposed by others in loosely structured situations. – Work hard to do well in highly structured situations. – Are strongly guided by ethical considerations. – Are unlikely to lie or cheat.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–38
  39. 39. Self-monitoring Self-monitoring A person’s ability to adjust his/her behavior to external situational factors. – High self-monitors. • Sensitive to external cues. • Behave differently in different situations. – Low self-monitors. • Not sensitive to external cues. • Not able to disguise their behaviors© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–39
  40. 40. Type A’s & Type B’s Type A’s & Type B’s Type A Personality – Always moving, walking, and eating rapidly. – Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place. – Strive to think or do two or more things at once. – Cannot cope with leisure time. – Are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. Type B Personality – Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience. – Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation. – Play for fun & relaxation, instead of exhibit their superiority at any cost. – Can relax without guilt.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–40
  41. 41. Self-esteem Self-esteem Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking of themselves.High Self-esteem believe:Posses the ability they need in order to succeed at workTake more risks in job selection and are more likely to choose unconventional jobs than people with low self esteemLow Self esteem depends on the receipt of positive evaluation from others. As a result they are more likely to seek approval from others and more prone to confirm to the beliefs and behaviors of those they respect than are high self esteem.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–41
  42. 42. Perception Perception “ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.”© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–42
  43. 43. Perception Perception Perception – The process by which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve, and respond to information. – Perceptual information is gathered from: • Sight. • Hearing. • Touch. • Taste. • Smell A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–43
  44. 44. Factors influencing perception Factors influencing perception© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–44
  45. 45. Figure-ground illustration Figure-ground illustration Field-ground Differentiation The tendency to distinguish and focus on a stimulus that is classified as figure as opposed to background.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–45
  46. 46. Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.  Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different situations.  Consensus: response is the same as others to same situation.  Consistency: responds in the same way over time.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–46
  47. 47. Errors and Biases in Attributions Errors and Biases in Attributions Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–47
  48. 48. Errors and Biases in Attributions (cont’d) Errors and Biases in Attributions (cont’d) Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–48
  49. 49. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–49
  50. 50. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic Contrast Effects Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–50
  51. 51. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging OthersProjectionAttributing one’s own characteristics to other people.StereotypingJudging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–51

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