Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Harvesting Intelligence from Social Media
Through GeoSocial Analysis
Arie Croitoru,...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Outline
• Social media and geospatial intelligence
• GeoSocial analysis
• Sample Ap...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Aerial imagery: Late 19th century
(Source:Jensen2000).RemoteSensingoftheEnvironment...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Aerial imagery: Pre World War I
(Dr. Julius Neubronner)
Image source: Wikipedia; th...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Aerial imagery: World War I
(Source:Jensen2000).RemoteSensingoftheEnvironment:AnEar...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
The Rise of Photo Reconnaissance (1938)
“The nation with the best photo
reconnaissa...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Aerial imagery: World War 2
(Source:Jensen2000).RemoteSensingoftheEnvironment:AnEar...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Aerial imagery: The Cold War (1954-1974)
CC, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
From Aerial to Satellite Imagery
Source: NASA – Public Domain – taken by Apollo 8 c...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
The Corona Program
• 1st photo reconnaissance
satellite in the world
• 1st mid-air ...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Imaging from Space Today
Image source: Public Domain, created by NASA
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Image source: Earth Imaging Journal - http://eijournal.com/2011/geoeye-2-design-pha...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
(Source: DigitalGlobe 2009)
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster
Image source: CC – Wikimedia File:Fukushima I by Dig...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster in Social Media
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Social Media and the Market
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
© George Mason University© Dr. Arie Coritoru,
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Motivation: The Proliferation of Social Media
• Twitter: 400 million accounts (140
...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Motivation: User-Generated Digital Content
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Social Media and Intelligence
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Reporting Events
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Building Communities
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
A New Communication Tool
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
A New Battlefield
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Social Media Contant
and
GeoSocial Analysis
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Geolocation Information
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Social Media Content: The Message
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Social Media Content: Social Networks
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
A GeoSocial Approach
GeoSocial data mining:
A unique combination of geospatial,
soc...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
A GeoSocial Approach: An Example
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Opportunities and Challenges
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Event Responses in Twitterdom
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Impact Area Assessment: People as Sensors
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Validation Test Case: OWS Day of Action (11/17/11)
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
GeoSocial Clustering (Test case: Occupy Wall Street, 11/17/11)
Identifying keywords...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Social Network Analysis
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
The Interplay of Cyber and Physical
Hybrid Communities:
Where cyber meets
spatial
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Geography Redefined: Case Study Syria
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Geography Redefined: Case Study Syria
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Geography Redefined: Case Study Syria
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Geography Redefined: Case Study Syria
A new map of Syria as a polycentric state.
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Geography Redefined: Case Study Syria
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Test Case: Boston Marathon Bombing
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Test Case: Boston Marathon Bombing (cont.)
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Test Case: Boston Marathon Bombing (cont.)
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Test Case: Boston Marathon Bombing (cont.)
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Test Case: Hurricane Sandy
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
GeoSocial Gauge: A Sample Architecture
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
GeoSocial Gauge: Front End
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Outlook
• Authoritative vs. open-source: a changing balance
• Social Media: Opportu...
Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
Contact Info
Dr. Arie Croitoru
Center for Geospatial Intelligence
George Mason Univ...
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Arie croituro GMU - location intelligence

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The remarkable success of online social media sites marks a shift in the way people connect and share information. Much of this information now contains some form of geographical content due to the proliferation of location-aware devices, thus fostering the emergence of geosocial media - and geosocial analysis. Through the analysis of geosocial media we are able, for the first time, to observe human activities in scales and resolutions that were so far unavailable. Furthermore, the wide spectrum of social media data and service types provides a multitude of perspectives on real-world activities and happenings, thus opening new frontiers in geosocial knowledge discovery. However, gleaning knowledge from geosocial media is a challenging task, as they tend to be unstructured and thematically diverse. In this presentation we review through selected test cases some of the emerging opportunities and challenges associated with the analysis of geosocial media.

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  • The collection of Earth imagery has attracted attention for many years. In the mid 19th century, the invention of the camera together with the recent invention of the lighter than air balloon provided man, for the first time, the opportunity to capture the earth from a birds-eye view. In 1858 a Parisian portrait photographer was able to get to a height of approximately 80 meters and capture a photograph of paris. This marked the beginning of a new era of aerial photography.This new idea was quickly imported to the north America. In 1860 the first aerial photograph of Nort America was taken over Boston using the “Queen of the air” – a lighter than air balloon flying at 1200 ft. Another key drivers for the development of aerial photography was military applications. During the American Civil War Union forces used balloons to gather information on enemy movement and formation and for guiding union fire. For example, in 1862 union army balloons flew 1400 feet to map defense lines in Richmond VA. Similarly, In Fair Oaks VA intrepid (shown on the left) was flown using hydrogen for military reconnaissance purposes.However, the use of balloons for reconnaissance was difficult. Some of the key problems were:Heavy cameras and limited payload limited space aboard the balloonThe stability of the platformAs well as the inability to navigate the balloons during flight.
  • In the beginning of the 20th century there were some attempts to use birds – and in particular pigeons – for collecting aerial imagery.One of the most notable attempt was made by Julius NEUBRONNER in 1903. NEUBRONNER invented a light-weight camera that could be mounted on a pigeon and activated automatically, collecting imagery at a constant rate.Pigeons were ideal for this purpose as they tend to fly at a constant speed and in a relatively straight line towards their cote. In addition, pigeons can fly up to 20km at a time, providing a better range and coverage.
  • The revolution in aerial photography came soon after the invention of the aerodynamic wing in 1903. This invention led to the fast development of aircrafts, and with them the development of aerial photography.A key driver for this development was military applications, and in particular the first and second world wars.World war I was the first war in which aircrafts were used massively as a tool of war. In conjunction, significant efforts were made to use aerial photography for reconnaissance and intelligence gathering. At first, aerial photographs were dismissed by military leaders and their potential was not appreciated. However, with time their benefits became apparent and information extracted from aerial imagery radically changed warfare.One of the reasons aerial imagery was so beneficial during world war I was because of the massive use of trenches. As trenches were dug quickly, the situation on the ground could change almost on a daily basis, often leading to unexpected situations. The use of aerial photographs allowed getting up-to-date information on the location of forces, the positions of guns, and the level of fortifying.By the end of the war, French allied units were producing as much as 10,000 photographs per day.During the war photographs were taken by a co-pilot, who either held a camera, or operated a mounted camera. As operating the camera often required exposing the co-pilot’s body to the ground, this was a dangerous occupation.
  • By the beginning of the second world war the importance of aerial reconnaissance became clearIn 1938, the German General Chief of Staff – General Werner Von Fritsch – stated: THE NATION WITH THE BEST PHOTO RECONNAISSANCE WILL WIN THE WARBy 1940 Germany became the leader in air reconnaissance but lagged in photo processing and interpretation techniques. On the other hand, allied forces improved dramatically their capabilities to collect aerial imagery and analysis improved dramatically and were used extensively.These two images, which were taken during an allied bombing campaign, capture the process of releasing bombs over targets. Images such as these were used for verifying the bombing location and then assess their impact.One of the key limitations of reconnaissance aircrafts during world war II was their limited defense capabilities. Because of that reconnaissance aircrafts were often escorted by fighter aircrafts.
  • After world war 2 and the form of the Soviet Union, the US suffered a significant lack of intelligence about the Soviet union and its military.At that time an arms race was developing and with it the need for more accurate and timely intelligenceThis lead President Eisenhower to approve a secret aircraft reconnaissance program in the early 1950’s – the U-2 Program. The program was to be run by the CIA. As any aerial reconnaissance over Soviet Union territory was considered a hostile act that could lead to war, the President himself approved every mission, which were considered at the highest priority.The Lockheed company was commissioned to build the U-2 Aircraft shown on the lef, which was specified to be a power glider that:Could fly at 70,000 ft.Have a range of close to 3,000 milesCould carry a heavy payload of cameras and film, including a high resolution camera (1m resolution) and a recording camera for documenting the entire flight path. The camera of a U-2 aircraft is shown on the right
  • I’d like to start with this image of earth Taken by Apollo 8 crewmember Bill Anders on December 24, 1968, showing the Earth seemingly rising above the lunar surface.For me, this image signifies the beginning of the space era in earth imaging and reconnaissance.In the early 1960’s and after the U-2 incident, it was clear that space would be the new frontier for earth imaging an reconnaissance. In conjunction with the development of spacecraft technology, technology for imaging from space began to emerge.
  • In conjunction with its civilian space program, the US developed the Corona program – which marked the transition from air reconnaissance to space reconnaissance. Read BULLETS.
  • A close up view of the image reveals even more details – notice the visible bridge cables.
  • In conjunction to companies that collect imagery on a global scale, we – the users – are also engaged in imagery data collection – almost on a daily basis.If you are a Facebook, Twitter or Flickr user, Think about how many images you have uploaded recently as a way to share your life experiences with your family friends Modern digital imaging technology allows us to capture images anywhere and anytime.The image shown here is an example of this new reality. This image, which appeared on the front page of the New York Times on January 1 2012, shows a crowd at time square capturing the new years event using a host of mobile devices and cameras.
  • Arie croituro GMU - location intelligence

    1. 1. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Harvesting Intelligence from Social Media Through GeoSocial Analysis Arie Croitoru, Anthony Stefanidis Andrew Crooks, Jacek Radzikowski Center for Geospatial Intelligence George Mason University
    2. 2. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Outline • Social media and geospatial intelligence • GeoSocial analysis • Sample Applications to demonstrate capabilities and challenges
    3. 3. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Aerial imagery: Late 19th century (Source:Jensen2000).RemoteSensingoftheEnvironment:AnEarthResourcePerspective
    4. 4. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Aerial imagery: Pre World War I (Dr. Julius Neubronner) Image source: Wikipedia; this work is in the public domain in the United States (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Three_pigeons_with_cameras.jpg) Image source: Wikimedia; this work is in the public domain in the United States (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Julius_Neubronner_with_pigeon_and_camera _1914_cropped.jpg
    5. 5. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Aerial imagery: World War I (Source:Jensen2000).RemoteSensingoftheEnvironment:AnEarthResourcePerspective
    6. 6. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 The Rise of Photo Reconnaissance (1938) “The nation with the best photo reconnaissance will win the war” General Werner Von Fritsch German General Chief of Staff (1938)
    7. 7. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Aerial imagery: World War 2 (Source:Jensen2000).RemoteSensingoftheEnvironment:AnEarthResourcePerspective
    8. 8. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Aerial imagery: The Cold War (1954-1974) CC, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/03/U2_Camera.JPG/662px-U2_Camera.JPG Image Credit: NASA/JPL
    9. 9. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 From Aerial to Satellite Imagery Source: NASA – Public Domain – taken by Apollo 8 crewmember Bill Anders [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
    10. 10. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 The Corona Program • 1st photo reconnaissance satellite in the world • 1st mid-air recovery of a vehicle returning from space • 1st stereo-optical data from space • 1st multiple reentry vehicles from space • 1st reconnaissance program to fly 100 missions Image source: http://www.nro.gov/history/csnr/corona/
    11. 11. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Imaging from Space Today Image source: Public Domain, created by NASA
    12. 12. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Image source: Earth Imaging Journal - http://eijournal.com/2011/geoeye-2-design-phase-ahead-of-schedule Image courtesy of GeoEye/Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company. Image source: WIRED magazine, http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2008/08/google-launches-2/ Imaging from Space Today
    13. 13. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 (Source: DigitalGlobe 2009)
    14. 14. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Image source: CC – Wikimedia File:Fukushima I by Digital Globe crop.jpg| Fukushima I by Digital Globe crop Image source: CC – Wikimedia "Made based on [http://w3land.mlit.go.jp/WebGIS/ National Land Image Information (Color Aerial Photographs)], Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism". http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AFukushima_I_NPP_1975.jpg
    15. 15. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster in Social Media
    16. 16. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Social Media and the Market
    17. 17. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 © George Mason University© Dr. Arie Coritoru,
    18. 18. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Motivation: The Proliferation of Social Media • Twitter: 400 million accounts (140 million active users) (9th most populous country in the world – above Japan) • Facebook: 1 billion users (the world’s 3rd most populous country), and 6 billion photos uploaded monthly • flickr: 6 billion photos (3,000 photos uploaded every minute) • QQ has 800 million accounts
    19. 19. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Motivation: User-Generated Digital Content
    20. 20. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Social Media and Intelligence
    21. 21. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Reporting Events
    22. 22. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Building Communities
    23. 23. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 A New Communication Tool
    24. 24. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 A New Battlefield
    25. 25. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Social Media Contant and GeoSocial Analysis
    26. 26. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Geolocation Information
    27. 27. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Social Media Content: The Message
    28. 28. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Social Media Content: Social Networks
    29. 29. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 A GeoSocial Approach GeoSocial data mining: A unique combination of geospatial, social network, and content analysis, to understand the human landscape and gain situational awareness.
    30. 30. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 A GeoSocial Approach: An Example
    31. 31. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Opportunities and Challenges
    32. 32. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
    33. 33. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Event Responses in Twitterdom
    34. 34. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Impact Area Assessment: People as Sensors
    35. 35. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013
    36. 36. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Validation Test Case: OWS Day of Action (11/17/11)
    37. 37. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 GeoSocial Clustering (Test case: Occupy Wall Street, 11/17/11) Identifying keywords: Understanding what are the defining keywords for evolving events.
    38. 38. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Social Network Analysis
    39. 39. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 The Interplay of Cyber and Physical Hybrid Communities: Where cyber meets spatial
    40. 40. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Geography Redefined: Case Study Syria
    41. 41. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Geography Redefined: Case Study Syria
    42. 42. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Geography Redefined: Case Study Syria
    43. 43. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Geography Redefined: Case Study Syria A new map of Syria as a polycentric state.
    44. 44. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Geography Redefined: Case Study Syria
    45. 45. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Test Case: Boston Marathon Bombing
    46. 46. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Test Case: Boston Marathon Bombing (cont.)
    47. 47. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Test Case: Boston Marathon Bombing (cont.)
    48. 48. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Test Case: Boston Marathon Bombing (cont.)
    49. 49. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Test Case: Hurricane Sandy
    50. 50. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 GeoSocial Gauge: A Sample Architecture
    51. 51. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 GeoSocial Gauge: Front End
    52. 52. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Outlook • Authoritative vs. open-source: a changing balance • Social Media: Opportunities and challenges • From post-event response to predictive analysis • GeoSocial Analysis: A new type of analysis for a new type of data and events • Validation • Improving signal-to-noise
    53. 53. Geospatial Intelligence @ Mason 5.2013 Contact Info Dr. Arie Croitoru Center for Geospatial Intelligence George Mason University Web: http://geosocial.gmu.edu http://cgeoint.gmu.edu Twitter: @GeoSocialMason email: astefani@gmu.edu

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