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Chapter 6 Employee Testing and Selection

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Chapter 6 Employee Testing and Selection

  1. 1. GARY DESSLER HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Global Edition 12e Chapter 6 Employee Testing and Selection PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West AlabamaCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Part 2 Recruitment and Placement 第三組 指導老師:謝琇玲 教授
  2. 2. WHERE WE ARE NOW…
  3. 3. 周偉菁 10121002M
  4. 4. Why Careful Selection is Important 為何謹慎甄選如此重要 p.202 Organizational performance 組織績效 Costs of recruiting and hiring 招募雇用成本 The Importance of Selecting the Right Employees Legal obligations and liability 法律義務和責任 Negligent Hiring 雇用疏忽
  5. 5. Person and Job/Organization Fit 個人工作/組織契合度 p.202 • A candidate might be “right” for a job, but wrong for the organization. • Person-job fit is usually the main consideration in selection, employers should care about person-organization fit as well.
  6. 6. Basic Testing Concepts 基本的測驗概念 p.203 • Reliability 信度 • Is a test’s first requirement and refers to its consistency(一致性). Test-retest reliability estimates 重測信度估量 Equivalent or alternate form estimates 複本或替代估量 Ways to Measure Reliability Internal comparison estimate 內部比較估量
  7. 7. Basic Testing Concepts 基本的測驗概念 p.204-205 • Validity 效度 • Indicates whether the test is measuring what it is supposed to be measuring. • It’s more difficult to prove that the tests are measuring what they are said to measure, in other words, that are valid. Criterion validity 準則效度 Content validity 內容效度 Types of Test Validity Construct validity 建構效度
  8. 8. FIGURE 6–2 A Slide from the Rorschach Test p.204
  9. 9. Evidence-Based HR: How to Validate a Test 事證基礎的人資:如何實證測驗的效度 p.206 1 Relate Your Test Scores and Criteria找出測驗成績與準則 之間的關係: scores versus actual performance 成績與績效 Choose the Tests選擇測驗: test battery綜合測驗 Steps in Test Validation Analyze the Job分析工作: predictors預測因子 and criteria準則 Administer the Test舉行測驗: concurrent同時效度 or predictive 預測效度 validation 2 3 4 Cross-Validate and Revalidate交叉驗證與再驗證: repeat Steps 3 and 4 with a different sample 5
  10. 10. FIGURE 6–4 Expectancy Chart p.208 Note: This expectancy chart shows the relation between scores made on the Minnesota Paper Form Board and rated success of junior draftspersons. Example: Those who score between 37 and 44 have a 55% chance of being rated above average and those scoring between 57 and 64 have a 97% chance.
  11. 11. Who scores the test? p.208 • Bias 偏誤 There may be bias in how the test measures the trait it purports to measure. The predictions one makes based on the test may be biased. • Utility Analysis 效用分析 • Using dollar and cents terms, [utility analysis] shows the degree to which use of a selection measure improves the quality of individuals selected over what would have happened if the measure had not been used.
  12. 12. Validity Generalization 效度推論 p.209 • The degree to which evidence of a measure’s validity obtained in one situation can be generalized to another situation without further study. • Under the Uniform Guidelines, the employer should also find an equally valid but less adversely impacting alternative.
  13. 13. Test Takers’ Individual Rights and Test Security 受測者的權利與測驗的安全性 p.209 • Under the APA’s standard for educational and psychological tests, test takers have the following rights:  The right to the confidentiality of test results.  The right to informed consent regarding use of these results.  The right to expect that only people qualified to interpret the scores will have access to them, or that sufficient information will accompany the scores to ensure their appropriate interpretation.  The right to expect the test is fair to all. For example, no one taking it should have prior access to the questions or answers.
  14. 14. Legal Privacy Issues 法律隱私問題 p.209 • Common sense suggests that managers should keep their knowledge of employees’ test results private. • Avoiding Employee Defamation Suits 1. Make sure you understand the need to keep employees’ information confidential. 2. Adopt a “need to know” policy. Sometimes supervisor may not “need to know”.
  15. 15. How Do Employers Use Tests at Work? 雇主如何在工作中進行測驗 p.210 • In general, as work demands increase (in terms of skill requirements, training, and pay), employers tend to rely more on testing in the selection process. • Employers don’t use tests just to find good employees, but also to screen out bad ones.
  16. 16. Computerized and Online Testing 電腦化與線上測驗 p.211 • Computerized and/or online Testing is increasingly replacing conventional paper-and-pencil test. Such tests are also becoming more sophisticated.
  17. 17. 武氏明賢 10121018M
  18. 18. Types of Tests 測驗類型 P.212 Cognitive abilities 認知能力測試 Motor and physical abilities 操作與體能測驗 Personality and interests 人格與興趣衡量 What Different Tests Measure 測驗方法 Current achievement 成就測驗
  19. 19. IQ tests are test of general intellectual abilities. They measure not a single trait but rather a range of abilities, including memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, and numerical ability. Intelligence test Specific cognitive abilities Test of cognitive Abilities 認知能力測試 P.212-213 Measures of specific metal abilities, such as deductive reasoning, verbal comprehension, memory, and numerical ability. ( aptitude tests)
  20. 20. FIGURE 6–6 Type of Question Applicant Might Expect on a Test of Mechanical Comprehension 哪個齒輪會跟driver轉同 一個方向? P.213
  21. 21. Such as finger dexterity, manual dexterity, and (if hiring pilots) reaction time. Motor abilities Physical Abilities Test of Motor and Physical Abilities 操作與體能測驗 P.213 Include static strength ( such as lifting weights), dynamic strength ( like pull- ups), body coordination( as in jumping rope) and stamina.
  22. 22. Measuring personality and Interests 人格與興趣衡量 P213-214
  23. 23. The “Big Five” P.215 Extraversion 外向 Emotional stability/ Neuroticism 情緒穩定性 Agreeableness 親切 Openness to experience 開放的心胸 Conscientiousness 勤奮
  24. 24. Do personality tests predict performance ? 人格測驗可以預測績效嗎 P215 In fact, personality traits do often correlate with job performance Other traits correlate with occupational success
  25. 25. first • Projective tests are hard to interpret. second • Personality tests can trigger legal challenges third • Some dispute that self- report personality tests predict performanc e at all ! CAVEATS P.213 注意
  26. 26. What someone has learned You take in school “job knowledge” like economics, marketing, or HR Also popular at work Achievement Tests 成就測驗 P216
  27. 27. Work Samples and Simulations 工作抽樣與模擬 P.216 Work samples 工作抽樣 Measuring Work Performance Directly 工作績效的直接評量 Miniature job training and evaluation 小型的工作訓練 與評鑒 Situational testing Video- Based Situational Testing 情境測試&影視 模擬測驗 Situational Judgment Tests 情境判斷 測驗 Management assessment centers 管理評鑑 中心
  28. 28. FIGURE 6–8 Example of a Work Sampling Question 工作抽樣問題的範例 P.216 Checks key before installing against: 安裝前檢查關鍵事項 ___ shaft軸心 score 3 ___ pulley滑輪 score 2 ___ neither都沒檢查 score 1 Note: This is one step in installing pulleys and belts. 此為裝置滑輪與皮帶的一個步驟
  29. 29. Situational Judgment Tests 情境判斷測驗 P217 Situational Judgment Tests are personnel tests “ designed to assess an applicant’s judgment regarding a situation encountered in the workplace”. Situational judgmnet tests are effective and widely used
  30. 30. Management assessment centers 管理評鑑中心 P217 The in-basket 公文藍演練 Leaderless group discussion 沒有領導者的小組 討論 Management games 管理競賽 Individual presentations 個人的口頭報告 Objective tests 客觀的測驗 The interview 面談
  31. 31. Situational testing Video-Based Situational Testing 情境測試 &影視模擬測驗 P218 • Require examinees to respond to situations representative of the job. • Work sampling and some assessment center tasks fall in this category. Situational tests • Presents the candidate with several online or PC- Based video situations, each followed by one or more multiple- choice questions. Video-Based simulation
  32. 32. Miniature job training and evaluation 小型的工作訓練與評鑒 P219  Miniature job training and evaluation means training candidates to perform several of the job’s task, and then evaluating the candidates’ performance prior to hire.  Like work sampling , miniature job training and evaluation tests applicants with actual samples of the job, so it’s inherently content relevant and valid  The big problem is the expense involved in the instruction and training.(個別教學與訓練的費用)
  33. 33. • 實際工作預告 • Sometimes, a dose of realism makes the best screening tool Realistic Job Preview •針對管理人員的 測驗技術 • even in large companies, when it comes to screening employees, you’re on your own HR in Practice
  34. 34. TABLE 6–1 Evaluation of Selection Assessment Methods 各種測驗的評估 P.220 Assessment Method 評鑑方法 Validity 有效性 Adverse Impact 不利衝擊 Costs (Develop發展 /Administer執行) Cognitive ability tests 認知能力測驗 High High (against minorities對弱勢不利) Low/low Job knowledge test 工作知識測驗 High High (against minorities對弱勢不利) Low/low Personality tests 人格測驗 Low to moderate Low Low/low Integrity tests 誠實測驗 Moderate to high Low Low/low Stuctured interviews 結構性訪問 High Low High/high Situational judgment tests 情境判斷測驗 Moderate Moderate (against minorities對弱勢不利) High/low Work samples 工作抽樣 High Low High/high Assessment centers 評鑑中心 Moderate to high Low to moderate, depending on exercise (根據任務不同) High/high Physical ability tests 體能測試 Moderate to high High (against females and older workers) High/high
  35. 35. 洪珮婷 10121005M
  36. 36. 伍、Background Investigations and Other Selection Methods 背景調查與其他的甄選方法 (p.220)
  37. 37. 1.Why Perform Background Investigations and Reference Checks? 為什麼要進行背景調查與資歷驗證? (p.220) • Investigations and Checks  Reference checks 資歷驗證 87%  Background employment checks 背景調查 69%  Criminal records 犯罪紀錄 61%  Driving records 駕駛紀錄 56%  Credit checks 信用狀況 35% • Why check?  To verify factual information provided by applicants  To uncover damaging information
  38. 38. 2.The Legal Dangers and How to Avoid Them 如何避免法律問題 (p.221) Defamation (誹謗) Legal remedies (法律上的補償) Privacy (隱私權)
  39. 39. 3.How to Check a Candidate’s Background 如何檢核候選人的背景資源 (p.222) Former Employers Current Supervisors Written References Social Networking Sites Commercial Credit Rating Companies Sources of Information
  40. 40. 4.The Social Network: Checking Applicant’s Social Posting (p.224) Making Background Checks More Useful 1. Include on the application form a statement for applicants to sign explicitly authorizing a background check. 2. Use telephone references if possible. 3. Be persistent in obtaining information. 4. Compare the submitted résumé to the application. 5. Ask open-ended questions to elicit more information from references. 6. Use references provided by the candidate as a source for other references.
  41. 41. 5.Using Preemployment Information Services 使用就業前的資訊服務 (p.225) 1 Notice of adverse action to applicant/employee Employer certification to reporting agency 2. Acquisition and Use of Background Information Disclosure to and authorization by applicant/employee Providing copies of reports to applicant/employee 2 3 4 Use Caution 1. It’s can be tricky complying with EEO laws.
  42. 42. 6.The Polygraph and Honesty Testing 測謊與誠實測驗 (p.225) • Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 Who Can Use the Polygraph? 1. The employer has suffered an economic loss or injury. 2. The employee in question had access to the property. 3. There is a reasonable prior suspicion. 4. The employee is told the details of the investigation, as well as questions to be asked on the polygraph test itself. Paper-and Pencil Honesty Tests?
  43. 43. 6.The Polygraph and Honesty Testing 測謊與誠實測驗 (p.225) Honesty Testing Programs: What Employers Can Do  Ask blunt questions.  Listen, rather than talk.  Do a credit check.  Check all employment and personal references.  Use paper-and-pencil honesty tests and psychological tests.  Test for drugs.  Establish a search-and-seizure policy and conduct searches.
  44. 44. FIGURE 6–10 “The Uptight Personality” (p.228) 7.Graphology 筆跡測驗 (p.227)
  45. 45. 9.Physical Exams 體檢 (p.227) • Reasons for preemployment medical examinations:  To verify that the applicant meets the position’s physical requirements.  To discover any medical limitations you should consider in placing him or her.  To establish a baseline for future insurance or workers compensation claims. 8.”Human Lie Detectors” 人體測謊儀 (p.227)
  46. 46. 10.Substance Abuse Screening 濫用藥物的篩檢 (p.228) • Types of Screening (什麼時候會篩檢)  Before formal hiring  After a work accident  Presence of obvious behavioral symptoms  Random or periodic basis  Transfer or promotion to new position • Types of Tests  Urinalysis (尿液篩檢)  Hair follicle testing (毛髮檢測)
  47. 47. 11.Complying with Immigration Law 遵守移民法 (p.229) • I-9 Employment Eligibility Verification form • E-Verify Proof of Eligibility (資格的查驗) • Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) 移民管理局 Avoiding Discrimination (避免歧視) • Discrimination (歧視)
  48. 48. K E Y T E R M S (p.234) reliability test validity criterion validity content validity expectancy chart interest inventory work samples work sampling technique management assessment center situational test video-based simulation miniature job training and evaluation
  49. 49. 誠實測驗 • 卡特洗衣公司的核心人物珍妮佛卡特與她的父親,再甄選應 徵者上面臨著如同父親所說「看似容易卻頗為困難」的問題。 • 最重要的兩項工作「洗衣」與「燙衣」,只要徵者實際進行 20分鐘的工作測驗,就可以甄選出優秀的應徵者。 • 「應徵者是否知道如何燙衣服或如何使用清潔劑與機器,只 要使他們實際操作就知道」 • 最嚴重的兩個問題是,員工流動率與誠實的問題。珍妮佛與 父親希望可以降低員工流動率,也希望可以解決問題的員工測 驗與雇用新員工上已浪費太多的金錢與時間。必須建立一套新 的制度來防堵有偷竊習慣的員工。 • 且偷竊的問題不見得與金錢有關。洗衣和燙衣的員工經常 在經理不在時自行開店工作,其中有些員工會偷竊洗衣用品或 「做自己的生意」。
  50. 50. 問題 •1. 請具體說明,卡特洗衣公司可利用那些甄選方法來淘汰有偷 竊傾向的員工?如何精確地執行? •2. 公司要如何解雇被發現偷竊的員工?當他到別家公司應徵時 ,公司應該設定何種程序以處理這些員工所要求的推薦資料?
  51. 51. 謝謝聆聽 ^_^

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