Energy-efficient ship case studies


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Energy-efficient ship case studies

  1. 1. Peaceboat Charrette Case studies, energy-efficiency opportunities, key cost indicators and water and electricity end-use Hamburg, 22 April 2014
  2. 2. Ships (case studies)
  3. 3. owner Carnival Corporation yard Financtiera capacity 1848 passengers engine 3x 16 cylinder + 2 x 12 cylinder Sulzer ZAV40S diesel engines (Wärtsilä) + GELM2500 gas turinbe propulsion 2x 17.62MW ABB Azipod estimated cost ~$400M HAL MS Oosterdam
  4. 4. owner Celebrity Cruises yard MeyerWerft capacity 2852 passengers engine 4x Wärtsilä 16V46 diesel engine propulsion 2x 20.5MW ABB Azipod estimated cost ~$750M (Wikipedia) Celebrity Eclipse
  5. 5. owner Scandlines design FutureShip (GL company) capacity 1500 people, 96 trucks engine 8300kW fuel cells 2400kWh battery, to keep fuel cells at constant power output fuel storage 140m estimated cost n/a Scandlines zero-emissions ferry (to be constructed)
  6. 6. Viking Line’s Viking Grace owner Viking Line yard STX Finland capacity 2800 passengers, 1275m trucks, 500m passenger cars, 880 cabins engine dual fuel engines (HFO, diesel or LNG) (Wärtsilä) fuel storage 2 x 200m control system ABB EMMA estimated cost €240M
  7. 7. Ethereal owner n/a yard Royal Huisman Shipyards capacity 12 passengers + 10 crew engine 2x ~650kW diesel engines fuel storage 46m3 for diesel generators 90kW, PF=0.8 + 155kW, PF=0.8 estimated cost n/a
  8. 8. Lessons learned during study of USS Princeton
  9. 9. Retrofit opportunities aboard USS Princeton (1/2) • Improve motor, pump, and fan efficiency via whole-system design. • Use VSDs on variable loads. • Improve duct and pipe pressure drops and entering/leaving conditions. • Improve power factor and understanding of its importance. • Improve electrical power generation efficiency. • Improve propulsion power efficiency. • Improve pumping efficiency.
  10. 10. • Improve fan efficiency. • Improve space cooling systems equipment and operations. • Thermal integration, reusing “waste” heat for space heating, refrigeration, flash evaporation for potable water, laundry, cooking. • Improve energy efficiency of potable water production. • Improve lighting efficiency and quality. • Improve air compressor efficiency. • Upgrade systems sensors, monitoring and controls. Retrofit opportunities aboard USS Princeton (2/2)
  11. 11. Technologies Limited number—other speakers will elaborate
  12. 12. Propulsion: skysails Skysails deploys kites up to 320m2 to reduce fuel consumption of cargo ships.
  13. 13. Propulsion: flettner rotor E-Ship1, owned by wind turbine manufacturer Enercon, uses Flettner rotors. The cylinders are rotated by a motor (not the wind!) and create a force perpendicular to the direction of the wind (called the Magnus effect).
  14. 14. Hull: robotic shape Protei is an oil-cleaning sailboat with a shape-shifting hull, leading to a lower loss when the ship’s nose turns through the wind.
  15. 15. Key cost indicators
  16. 16. type value unit Fuel Natural Gas 700 $/ton Energy content 55 MJ/kg Efficiencies four-stroke 0.35 two-stroke 0.5 generator 0.9 Capital engine 828 $/kW generator 414 $/kW amortization period 30 years hours of operation/year 2000 hours Calculation 4.81 kWhe/kg fuel fuel cost 0.15 $/kWh capital 0.02 $/kWh 1kWh of delivered electricity 0.17 $/kWh Delivered electricity costs
  17. 17. Potable water costs type value unit On-shore water Europe 4.1 $/m3 South America 25 $/m3 Flash evaporation 13.8 $/m3 Reversed osmosis 6.9 $/m3
  18. 18. Space-cooling costs type value unit explanation COP 3.00 System efficiency 0.33 kWhe/kWh thermal Power requirement thermal 3.52 kW assumption: 1 ton-hour per hour electric 1.17 kW Energy requirement electric 1.17 kWh Electricity costs 0.19 $/kWh Capital costs all equipment 2760.00 $/kW €5M / 2500kW other 0.00 $/kW amortization period 15.00 years hours of operation/year 7000.00 hours Calculation capital costs 0.03 $/ton-hour electricity costs 0.23 $/ton-hour 1 ton-hour of delivered cooling 0.26 $/ton-hour of cooling
  19. 19. End-use of electricity and water
  20. 20. Electricity end-use miscellaneous motors 15% water-heating 6% space-heating 12% cooking 15% electronics 10% space-cooling 34% lighting 10%
  21. 21. Water end-use (liter / person*day ) deck-washing 65 dish-washing 15 clothes-washing 25 bathing 125 cooking 15 drinking 5