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Institutional Change and Parental Compensation in Intergenerational attainment

Erola, Pöyliö & Kilpi-Jakonen: Institutional Change and Parental Compensation in Intergenerational attainment. Presentation at TITA Annual Research Meeting, Turku 15.-16.9.2016.

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Institutional Change and Parental Compensation in Intergenerational attainment

  1. 1. Ins$tu$onal Change and Parental Compensa$on in Intergenera$onal a5ainment Heta Pöyliö, Jani Erola & Elina Kilpi-Jakonen + some results from Heta Pöyliö & johanna Kallio: The impact of family and educa2on policies on intergenera2onal transmission of socioeconomic status in Europe
  2. 2. OED & Parental compensa$on Weakening origin-educa$on (OE) associa$on Decreasing returns - educa$onal infla$on (ED) Parental compensa$on: The increase of direct influence of parents (OD) (net of E) E – +/ –
  3. 3. Ins$tu$onal changes in educa$on §  MMI & EMI – Parents react to ins$tu$onal changes (e.g. educa$onal expansion) §  Weakening OE linked with changes in ins$tu$ons -> expect these to influence OD O D Ins$tu$on - +
  4. 4. Data & methods ESS 2002-2010 Cohorts 1941-1980 25 Countries Linear country fixed effect models Decomposi$on
  5. 5. Individual level variables ISEI Child - cnt Parent - highest Educa$on (cnt 12 yrs) Age & gender
  6. 6. -.03-.02-.010 yearsineducation(cnt) 1946- 1951- 1956- 1961- 1966- 1971- 1976- Cohort*Origin Note: Birth cohort 1941-45 as reference Origin-Education association across cohorts Weakening OE
  7. 7. Strenthening ED -.10.1.2.3 ISEI(cnt) 1946- 1951- 1956- 1961- 1966- 1971- 1976- Cohort*Education Note: Birth cohort 1941-45 as reference Education-Destination association across cohorts
  8. 8. 1: The origin-des2na2on ssocia2on net of educa2on as strengthened -.1-.050.05 ISEI(cnt) 1946- 1951- 1956- 1961- 1966- 1971- Cohort*origin gross OD net OD Note: Birth cohort 1941-45 as reference Origin-Destination association across cohorts
  9. 9. Variables for ins$tu$onal change Matched with equivalent 5-year birth cohorts within countries School leaving age Fees in ter$ary educa$on The propor$on completed ter$ary educa$on Removal of educa$onal dead-ends
  10. 10. Methods Linear country fixed effect models Decomposi$on
  11. 11. OE & Ins$tu$ons Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Birth cohort 0.378*** (0.018) 0.308*** (0.018) 0.378*** (0.018) 0.323*** (0.019) 0.305*** (0.018) Parental ISEI (cnt.) 0.086*** (0.001) 0.084*** (0.001) 0.086*** (0.001) 0.086*** (0.001) 0.086*** (0.001) Birth cohort # Parental ISEI (cnt.) -0.004*** (0.000) -0.004*** (0.000) -0.004*** (0.000) -0.004*** (0.000) -0.004*** (0.000) Female -0.034 (0.022) -0.038 (0.022) -0.035 (0.022) -0.036 (0.022) -0.037 (0.022) Age (cnt.) 0.017*** (0.004) 0.018*** (0.004) 0.017*** (0.004) 0.016*** (0.004) 0.017*** (0.004) School leaving age 0.263*** (0.015) Fees apply -0.067 (0.054) Completed tertiary education (%) 0.029*** (0.004) 1 reform on educational dead- ends 0.551*** (0.041) 2 reforms 0.979*** (0.066) Observations 105016 105016 105016 105016 105016
  12. 12. OE + ins2tu2ons stitution Decomposition 95% conf. interval (proportion of change in OE) hool leaving age 0.122*** 0.096 0.148 es in tertiary education 0.001 -0.001 0.002 ompleted tertiary education (%) -0.002 -0.007 0.003 emoval of educational dead-ends 0.024** 0.008 0.040
  13. 13. OD + ins$tu$ons Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Mode irth cohort 0.054 (0.085) -0.796*** (0.074) -0.668*** (0.076) -0.795*** (0.074) -0.853*** (0.079) -0.693 (0.07 arental ISEI (cnt.) 0.341** (0.006) 0.148*** (0.006) 0.151*** (0.006) 0.148*** (0.006) 0.149*** (0.006) 0.148 (0.00 irth cohort # arental ISEI (cnt.) -0.002 (0.002) 0.007*** (0.001) 0.006*** (0.001) 0.007*** (0.001) 0.007*** (0.001) 0.007 (0.00 emale -0.296** (0.103) -0.219* (0.091) -0.212* (0.091) -0.212* (0.091) -0.220* (0.091) -0.21 (0.09 ducation in years nt.) 2.249*** (0.017) 2.256*** (0.017) 2.250*** (0.017) 2.249*** (0.017) 2.254 (0.01 chool leaving age -0.486*** (0.059) ees apply 0.964*** (0.225) ompleted tertiary ducation (%) 0.030 (0.016) reform on ducational dead- nds -0.714 (0.16 reforms -1.514
  14. 14. OD + ins2tu2ons titution Decomposition 95% conf. interval (proportion of change in OD) hool leaving age 0.126*** 0.069 0.182 es in tertiary education 0.005 -0.002 0.012 mpleted tertiary education (%) 0.002 -0.002 0.005 moval of educational dead-ends 0.005 -0.022 0.033
  15. 15. Family ins$tu$ons? Pöyliö and Kallio extended the test to contrast ed. ins$tu$ons with family ins$tu$ons – the school leaving age – pre-primary educa5on – propor5on completed ter5ary educa5on – maternity leave – family allowances birth cohorts 1956-1980
  16. 16. Sum of results Parental compensa$on taking place in Europe School leaving age and dead-end reforms explain directly some of the weakening of OE School leaving age has a strong direct influence on the on parental compensa$on (net OD)
  17. 17. Influence of School leaving age Older age – less dependent on parents in educa$onal decisions (weaker OE) BUT Longer $me at home – more influence of parents on occupa$on (values, preferences, social capital)
  18. 18. Younger cohorts (Pöyliö & Kallio) Also the length of maternity leave ma5ered Improved the chances of low SES family kids to reach higher status

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