Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Finns in Sweden: What influence
fathers’ parental leave use?
Eleonora Mussino, Jussi Tervola and
Ann-Zofie Duvander
 Motivation of the study:
 Why Finns in Sweden?
 Why Parental Leave?
 RQs and HPs
 Data and Method
 Results
 Conclu...
Why Finns in Sweden?
 Emigration from Finland has played a central role in the
development of the Swedish economy ever si...
Why Finns in Sweden?
 More than half a million Finns moved to Sweden over
a 50-year period, which amounts to one-tenth of...
Why Finns in Sweden?
Scb 2016
Why Finns in Sweden?
 Additionally Finland and Sweden :
 Provide family benefits for fathers but with crucial policy
dif...
 Nordic countries encourage fathers to participate in
childcare through parental benefits
 Mothers’ employment, equality...
8
Why Parental Leave?
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
2016
2014
2012
2010
2008
2006
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
Monthsfrom...
 A previous study indicates that immigrant fathers are
overrepresented among non-users of parental leave.
 However, diff...
So considering that:
 Finns in Sweden are economically integrated (LM migrants),
often speak the language and share gende...
 Longitudinal microdata, births 1999-2009
 Finland: 60 % sample of mothers given births
 Sweden: Total population
 We ...
 Examining the take-up (0/1) of individual leave
(quota or gender-neutral leave)
 Linear probability models (LMP)
 Hypo...
Results
Controlled Model: Month of birth, year of birth LM attachment, share of father’s income, Spouse
background, LM att...
Results
Controlled Model: Month of birth, year of birth LM attachment, share of father’s income, Spouse
background, LM att...
Results
Year ofbirth (ref. 2009)
1999 0.0297 0.405 -0.0680 0.000 -0.2483 0.000 -0.2190 0.000
2000 -0.0021 0.955 -0.0603 0....
Results
 Labour Market Effect:
Controlled Model: Month of birth, year of birth LM attachment, share of father’s income, S...
Results
 Spouse Effect:
Controlled Model: Month of birth, year of birth LM attachment, share of father’s income, Spouse
b...
 Labour market attachment shapes parental leave use
and is strongly connected to policy
 Finnish immigrants in Sweden ar...
 Do Finnish immigrants use parental leave in Sweden?
 Less than we expected
 There are some sign of adaptation over tim...
Consortium partners of TITA project
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Finns in Sweden: What influence fathers’ parental leave use?

Mussino, Tervola & Duvander: Finns in Sweden: What influence fathers’ parental leave use? Presentation at TITA Annual Research Meeting, Turku 15.-16.9.2016.

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Finns in Sweden: What influence fathers’ parental leave use?

  1. 1. Finns in Sweden: What influence fathers’ parental leave use? Eleonora Mussino, Jussi Tervola and Ann-Zofie Duvander
  2. 2.  Motivation of the study:  Why Finns in Sweden?  Why Parental Leave?  RQs and HPs  Data and Method  Results  Conclusions Outline
  3. 3. Why Finns in Sweden?  Emigration from Finland has played a central role in the development of the Swedish economy ever since the 1950s  The geographical closeness and similarities in working life, institutions, and culture promoted migration flows (Korkiasaari and Söderling, 1998; Finnäs, 2003; Hedberg and Kepsu, 2003).  Finland and Sweden are countries where the norm of gender equality prevails in both public and private sphere.
  4. 4. Why Finns in Sweden?  More than half a million Finns moved to Sweden over a 50-year period, which amounts to one-tenth of the current Finnish population.  However, more than half returned to Finland after a few years stay in Sweden.  They represent 10% of the foreign born population in Sweden in 2014
  5. 5. Why Finns in Sweden? Scb 2016
  6. 6. Why Finns in Sweden?  Additionally Finland and Sweden :  Provide family benefits for fathers but with crucial policy differences  Availability of in-depth register data  possibility to distinguish policy consequences from other factors, e.g. spouse’s origin, employment, wages, time in country
  7. 7.  Nordic countries encourage fathers to participate in childcare through parental benefits  Mothers’ employment, equality, new fatherhood  Parental leave is used as indicator of gender equality  In Sweden almost 9 out of 10 fathers use parental leave. Major differences in leave length between fathers  In Finland, fathers’ use of parental leave is significantly lower than in Sweden (20% ). Why Parental Leave?
  8. 8. 8 Why Parental Leave? -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 2016 2014 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 1992 Monthsfrombirth Finnish system Minimum benefit / home care allowance Father quota Condition to father quota Shared Daddy days simult. with mother Mother quota 2016 2014 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 1992 Swedish system
  9. 9.  A previous study indicates that immigrant fathers are overrepresented among non-users of parental leave.  However, differences diminish with time spent in the host country  Immigrant fathers may be discouraged to use the leave for several reasons:  Insecure attachment to the labour market  Lack of awareness about the social security system  Different gender roles in the culture of origin Why Parental Leave?
  10. 10. So considering that:  Finns in Sweden are economically integrated (LM migrants), often speak the language and share gender equal norm.  And despite:  The Finns in Finland use less PL than Swedes in Sweden  Our research questions are:  Do Finnish immigrants use parental leave in Sweden?  Are there differences between immigrants and their native counterpart in Sweden and in Finland?  Do immigrants show sign of adaptation, selection or socialization? RQs HPs
  11. 11.  Longitudinal microdata, births 1999-2009  Finland: 60 % sample of mothers given births  Sweden: Total population  We study fathers:  1) Finnish-born in Sweden  2) natives in Finland,  3) natives in Sweden,  4) Swedish-born in Finland 11 Data and Method
  12. 12.  Examining the take-up (0/1) of individual leave (quota or gender-neutral leave)  Linear probability models (LMP)  Hypotheses on:  Labour market attachment  Characteristics of the spouse  Period effect 12 Data and Method
  13. 13. Results Controlled Model: Month of birth, year of birth LM attachment, share of father’s income, Spouse background, LM attachment spouse, Age of the father Relative risk (ref Swedish born) of father using the leave in Sweden based on LPM coefficients
  14. 14. Results Controlled Model: Month of birth, year of birth LM attachment, share of father’s income, Spouse background, LM attachment spouse, Age of the father Relative risk (ref Swedish born) of father using the leave in Sweden based on LPM coefficients
  15. 15. Results Year ofbirth (ref. 2009) 1999 0.0297 0.405 -0.0680 0.000 -0.2483 0.000 -0.2190 0.000 2000 -0.0021 0.955 -0.0603 0.000 -0.2503 0.000 -0.2348 0.000 2001 0.0350 0.346 -0.0500 0.000 -0.2513 0.000 -0.2185 0.000 2002 0.0543 0.134 -0.0146 0.000 -0.2264 0.000 -0.1918 0.000 2003 0.0612 0.102 -0.0104 0.000 -0.1743 0.000 -0.1779 0.000 2004 0.0696 0.067 -0.0077 0.003 -0.1679 0.000 -0.1717 0.000 2005 0.0857 0.026 0.0052 0.042 -0.1609 0.000 -0.1068 0.001 2006 0.0290 0.445 0.0082 0.001 -0.1365 0.000 -0.1281 0.000 2007 0.0075 0.854 0.0025 0.332 -0.0607 0.000 -0.0311 0.345 2008 0.0491 0.219 -0.0027 0.295 -0.0299 0.000 -0.0090 0.785 Finn Swe Fin Swe Sweden Finland  Period Effect: NO PERIOD EFFECT Increase of use over time Same pattern: Increase of use over time Controlled Model: Month of birth, year of birth LM attachment, share of father’s income, Spouse background, LM attachment spouse, Age of the father
  16. 16. Results  Labour Market Effect: Controlled Model: Month of birth, year of birth LM attachment, share of father’s income, Spouse background, LM attachment spouse, Age of the father Father'swage level (ref. medium) Employed / low wage -0.2846 0.000 -0.2284 0.000 -0.0480 0.000 -0.0334 0.082 Employed / high wage -0.0944 0.000 -0.0616 0.000 0.0622 0.000 0.0897 0.000 Self-employed -0.0306 0.122 -0.0225 0.000 -0.0704 0.000 -0.0841 0.024 Not employed -0.1742 0.000 -0.1883 0.000 -0.0779 0.000 -0.0643 0.043 Father'sincome share (ref. ~50%) 0 (0-12%) -0.1103 0.019 -0.2202 0.000 -0.0129 0.043 0.0626 0.168 25 (13-37%) -0.0886 0.006 -0.0546 0.000 -0.0023 0.502 0.0103 0.707 75 (63-87%) -0.0865 0.000 -0.0488 0.000 -0.0390 0.000 -0.0196 0.272 100 (88-100%) -0.1473 0.000 -0.0766 0.000 -0.0335 0.000 -0.0073 0.833 Finn Swe Fin Swe Sweden Finland SAME effect: Medium wage SAME effect: High wage WEAK EFFECT 50% higher probability WEAK EFFECT 50% higher probability WEAK EFFECT NO EFFECT
  17. 17. Results  Spouse Effect: Controlled Model: Month of birth, year of birth LM attachment, share of father’s income, Spouse background, LM attachment spouse, Age of the father Employed mother 0.0009 0.975 0.0056 0.014 -0.0032 0.334 0.0274 0.263 Immigrant mother (RefSwedish) Immigrant -0.0045 0.868 -0.0353 0.000 -0.0161 0.006 0.0067 0.883 Finnish/Swedish -0.0398 0.068 0.0010 0.881 -0.0089 0.216 0.0655 0.080 Father'sincome share (ref. ~50%) 0 (0-12%) -0.1103 0.019 -0.2202 0.000 -0.0129 0.043 0.0626 0.168 25 (13-37%) -0.0886 0.006 -0.0546 0.000 -0.0023 0.502 0.0103 0.707 75 (63-87%) -0.0865 0.000 -0.0488 0.000 -0.0390 0.000 -0.0196 0.272 100 (88-100%) -0.1473 0.000 -0.0766 0.000 -0.0335 0.000 -0.0073 0.833 Finn Swe Fin Swe Sweden Finland POSITIVENO EFFECT NO EFFECT NO EFFECT NO EFFECT NO EFFECT NO EFFECT NO EFFECT POSITIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
  18. 18.  Labour market attachment shapes parental leave use and is strongly connected to policy  Finnish immigrants in Sweden are influenced by a Finnish-born spouse  Swedish immigrants in Finland follow the national trend over time  Swedish natives are more likely to share parental leave Conclusions
  19. 19.  Do Finnish immigrants use parental leave in Sweden?  Less than we expected  There are some sign of adaptation over time  Strong role of individual characteristics  Are there differences between immigrants and their native counterpart in Sweden and in Finland?  They actually behave similar, Finns even more  Do immigrants show sign of adaptation, selection or socialization?  Socialization: Being in a homogeneous relationship and migrating at older ages have impact  Adaptation: weak effect of duration of stay but clearly LM shapes behaviors  Selection: No sign…we have to look more Conclusions
  20. 20. Consortium partners of TITA project

×