Features of TitaniumBuilding MaterialsTitaniumBaojiMingkunNonferrousMetalCo.,Ltdhttp://www.bjmkgs.comMK Metaltitaniummanuf...
Titanium, an element found in 1790, wasnamed after the Titans, earth giants in ancientGreek mythology.Its industrial produ...
1. Basic characteristics of titanium building materials2. Great strengthTitanium is almost as strong as steel, and it is t...
Range of availability of our products (Cold rolled sheets)1. Basic characteristics of titanium building materials8. Survey...
Alumina blasted titanium, which is aimed at creating the appearance of smokedtiles, is used on traditional Japanese buildi...
2–2. An extensive product menu (Surface finish)B Alumina blasting + color finishA Roll dull + color finishUchinada Town Office...
3–1. Development of titanium that does not readily become discoloredTest period (years)Colordifference0 5 1510510152025303...
3–2. Development of titanium that does not readily become discoloredMechanism of discoloration of titanium (pattern diagra...
Distortion of the material after rolling is small, and the design performance as a roof is maintained.● Sometimes during r...
The Taipei Arena is the first instance of full-fledged use of titanium in Taiwan.Examples of use of titanium for building ap...
The Kyushu Oil Dome is the first example of the use of titanium that does not readily become discolored. Roll dull (ND20) w...
Reference materialsGoldIridiumPlatinumRhodiumPalladiumMercurySilverCopperBismuthArsenicCarbonLeadNickelCobaltCadmiumIronTi...
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Features of titanium building materials


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Features of titanium building materials, like corrosion resistance, lightweight. strength., etc.
you can contact sally by titaniummanufacturer@yahoo.com to get more details.

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Features of titanium building materials

  1. 1. Features of TitaniumBuilding MaterialsTitaniumBaojiMingkunNonferrousMetalCo.,Ltdhttp://www.bjmkgs.comMK Metaltitaniummanufacturer@yahoo.com
  2. 2. Titanium, an element found in 1790, wasnamed after the Titans, earth giants in ancientGreek mythology.Its industrial production began in around1946. Being “light,” “strong” and “rust-free,” itbegan to be applied in the aerospace, chemi-cal, electric-power and other industries, findingits way further into architectural, civil-engineering and general-purpose applications.Architects began to use titanium in the1970s. Titanium’s unparalleled performance incorrosion-resistance makes many architecturaldesigns possible for structures in severelycorrosive, salty atmospheres of seashores andalso in permanent architecture (e.g., museums,temples and shrines). Lately, titanium designshave begun to spread to general housing also.Overseas, in the 1990s, the use of titaniumon a massive scale by Frank O. Gehry in theGuggenheim Museum (Spain) attracted theattention of many modern architects andspread to many countries. Demand for titaniumbuilding materials is expected to further grow inthe future.Titanium, on the cutting edge of the times,is an environmentally friendly metal.CONTENTSDevelopment of titanium building materials ……………………………………… 1Basic characteristics of titanium building materials …………………………… 2An extensive product menu (Surface finish) ……………………………………… 6Colored titanium ……………………………………………………………………… 9Development of titanium that does not readily become discolored ……… 10Reduction of color-tone from one lot to another ……………………………… 13A wealth of application technology ……………………………………………… 14Examples of use of titanium for building applications ……………………… 16Reference materials ………………………………………………………………… 21Titanium building materials which have come into theworld as building materials with superior corrosion resis-tance to stainless steel and copper are the focus of atten-tion among many architects because of their design prop-erties. Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal has been engagedin various technological developments necessary forproducing architectural design materials.Development of titanium building materials(Note) This product reduces the rate of discoloration with thepassage of time. It does not stop discoloration. It is notpossible to guarantee that discoloration will not occur.Basic characteristicsof titanium buildingmaterialsTitanium offers superb propertiesas a building material which isideally suited to application in ahighly corrosive environment.1.Page 2∼Features oftitanium buildingmaterialsWe continuously strive to enabletitanium to maintain its designproperties coherently, fromdesign selection, through formingand installation, to maintenance.Anextensiveproductmenu(Surfacefinish)We developed titanium materialswith a wide variety of surfacefinishes, from those that look liketiles and are suitable for Japanesetemples and shrines, to lustrous,colored materials that are suitablefor modern architecture.2.Page 6∼Developmentoftitani-umthatdoesnotreadilybecomediscolored(Note)We developed titaniummaterials for building use thatdo not easily become discoloredwith the passage of time.3.Page 10∼4.Page 13Reduction ofcolor-tone fromone lot to anotherWith metal, the color-tone from onelot to another poses an issue fromthe design aspect. We developedcontrol technology that enables alarge area to be produced withrelatively little color variation.Awealthofapplicationtechnology● Development of a materialthat has little distortionduring forming● Development of a suitablecleaning agent5.(Page 15)(Page 14)1Baoji Mingkun Nonferrous Metaltitaniummanufacturer@yahoo.com
  3. 3. 1. Basic characteristics of titanium building materials2. Great strengthTitanium is almost as strong as steel, and it is the strongest of all metals for its mass orthe strongest in terms of specific gravity. For application as a building material, JIS Type1 — which is highly workable — is mainly used.1. Unparalleled corrosion resistance 3. Light weightTitanium, readily forming stable oxide films (in a passivestate), gives excellent performance in corrosion resistance. Inordinary service environments of building materials, thepossibility of titanium building materials becoming corrodedis non-existent.(1) Seawater corrosion resistance is comparable to that ofplatinum— suited to application in coastal areas.(2) Excellent corrosion resistance to corrosive gases(sulfurous acid gas, hydrogen sulfide gas, etc.)— suited to application in large cities, industrial areas,hot-spring resorts and the like. Titanium is a metal thatalso resists such environmental pollution as acid rain.(3) Titanium is quite free of stress, pitting, and crevice corro-sion as well as other types of corrosion or problemsinherent in stainless steel.(4) Corrosion due to contact with different metals (Refer to“Corrosion potential in sea water” on page 21)The corrosion potential of titanium is virtually equal to thatof stainless steel, and it can be used in the same manner.In locations where protection against contact corrosion isparamount, consideration must be given to insulation andthe prevention of condensation.Table 2. Comparison of chemical resistance between various metals(Source: Japan Titanium Society)The specific gravity of titanium is 4.51– 60% that of steel, half that of copper and 1.7times that of aluminum. Being such a lightweight metal, titanium imposes less burdenon a structure, and permits ease of fabrication.According to use, it eliminates the need for corrosion-combating expenses, andenables further weight reduction.4. Minimum thermal expansionTitanium’s coefficient of thermal expansion is half that of stainless steel and copperand one third of aluminum. Having a thermal-expansion coefficient quite near those ofglass and concrete, titanium can be used in combination with these materials.Thus, with little susceptibility to expansion or contraction from temperature changes,titanium offers great ease and freedom in design and execution in long-term use.5. Excellent aesthetic qualitiesTitanium itself has an excellent texture and has a tastefully subdued silver color.Titanium is also available in many varied colors developed by the anodic oxidationmethod.6. Environmentally soundTitanium is an innoxiously metal.Only slight dissolution of metal ions makes titanium a very friendly metal to humansand the environment.7. OthersAmong the other major properties titanium offers are:① Small Young’s modulus (elastic modulus).② Small thermal conductivity.③ A high melting point.④ Non-magnetism.Titanium is officially approved as a non-combustible material.(Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Certification No. “NM-8596”)Table 4. Comparison of physical properties between titanium and other metalsTable 1. Comparison of weather resistancebetween various metals(Source: Japan Titanium Society)JIS Type 1JIS Type 2JIS Type 3H≦0.013≦0.013≦0.013O≦0.15≦0.20≦0.30N≦0.03≦0.03≦0.05Fe≦0.20≦0.25≦0.30TiRemainderRemainderRemainderBendangle180°180°180°Inside radiusThickness by 2Thickness by 2Thickness by 3Tensile strength(N/mm2)270–410340–510480–620Proof stress(N/mm2)≧165≧215≧345Elongation(%)≧27≧23≧18Chemical composition Mechanical properties(thickness: 0.5-15 mm, excl.)Bend test(thickness: 0.5-5 mm, excl.)C≦0.08≦0.08≦0.08Table 3. Specifications for pure titanium for industrial use (JIS products)Rating: ◎<0.05 ○0.05∼0.5 △0.55∼1.27 ×>1.27 mm/year*Pitting and crevice corrosion are likely to occur.Rating: ◎Excellent ○Good △Fair ×Poor*Contact corrosion: The phenomenon in which a metal itselfcorrodes due to contact with extraneous mattersSea salt particleresistance (pitting)Ultraviolet rayresistanceAcid rainresistance (pitting)Acid rainatmosphericresistanceContact corrosionresistance*Corrosion fluidityresistanceThermal resistanceErosion resistanceStainless steelSUS 304CopperTitanium◎◎◎◎◎◎◎◎△◎△△×○◎◎○◎△×△×◎○Sea waterRoom temperatureHydrochloric acidHCℓ10%; Room temperatureSulfuric acidH2SO4 10%; Room temperatureNitric acidHNO3 10%; Room temperatureCaustic sodaNaOH 50%; Room temperatureSodium chlorideNaCℓ20%; Room temperatureChlorine gasCℓ2 100%; WetHydrogen sulfide gasH2S 100%; WetSulfurous acid gasSO2; 30–90CTitanium Stainless steelSUS 316Stainless steelSUS 304◎○○◎◎◎◎◎◎◎*×○◎◎○×○○◎*×○◎◎○×◎○○×○×◎◎×××CopperItemMelting point °CSpecific gravityThermal expansion coefficient×10-6/°C (20∼100)Thermal conductivitycaℓ/cm2/sec/°C/cmElectric resistance μΩ-cmYoung’s modulus Kg/mm2AluminumMetallic materials TitaniumStainless steelSUS 304Stainless steelSUS 316Iron Copper1,6684.518.40.0414710,8501,398∼1,4537.9317.30.0397219,3001,370∼1,3978.016.00.0397419,3001,5307.912.00.1509.721,0001,0838.917.00.9201.711,0006602.723.00.4902.77,05032titaniummanufacturer@yahoo.com Baoji Mingkun Nonferrous Metal
  4. 4. Range of availability of our products (Cold rolled sheets)1. Basic characteristics of titanium building materials8. Survey data on corrosion resistance(1) Data on corrosion tests of metallic materials in spa areasCorrosion of metallic materials at spa areas is a frequent cause of a variety of environ-mental problems and accordingly it is necessary to pay prudent attention in selectingmetallic material for service in these areas. As a typical example of corrosion testsconducted at spa areas, the test results obtained at the Zao spa, an area noted for itshigh acidity, are introduced below.(Source: , Vol. 35, No. 4 page 22, October 1987)(2) Results of surveys on acid rain by Nippon Steel &Sumitomo Metal(Research into application of titanium for the protectionof cultural assets)Copper has been applied as the material for roofing ofshrines and Buddhist temples because the copper surfacedevelops deep verdigris. However, deterioration of theenvironment such as acid rains is causing diverse problems.The adverse effect of acid rain on copper application lies inthat unstable basic copper sulfate is formed rather thanstable basic copper carbonate (verdigris). This phenomenonposes not only aesthetic but also corrosion problems, inparticular pitting corrosion (raindrop corrosion) caused by thedripping of acid raindrops. Further, the copper has a possibil-ity of being corroded by decoction from mortar andfumigated tiles. Such corrosion and other problems affectingcopper application have become a notable issue from theviewpoint of the protection of cultural assets and thus expec-tations are becoming high for titanium application.(Application examples: priests’ living quarters at IkkyujiTemple, tea-ceremony houses at Koetsuji Temple, Naritayaand Yakuoin Temples, others)Photo 1 shows the results of simulated raindrop corro-sion tests by dripping synthetic acid rain [H2SO4 :HNO3 :HCℓ=1.4:1.4 (mol ratio), pH=4.6].SpringheadPublic BathTemperature (°C)52.546.7pH1.301.35Cℓ-738.6845.3SO42-5,0705,460Fe2++Fe3+94.3106.0Ti (alumina blast finish) CuAfter2 daysAfter2 daysAfter66 daysAfter66 daysTable 5. Major constituents of the Zao springwater (unit: mg/kg)(unit: mg/dm2/day)Table 6. Degree of corrosion of various metallic materials obtained in the corrosion test at the Zao spa(Exposure period: 6 months)Photo 1. Metallic surfaces after simulated raindrop corrosion tests by dripping synthetic acid rain9. Workability(1) FormabilityThere are no particular differences between titanium andordinary and stainless steels. In the case of titanium JIS Type1, it can be formed employing practically the same tools, jigs,etc., used for ordinary and stainless steels.Due attention should be paid to the larger spring-back oftitanium than ordinary and stainless steels.(2) WeldabilitySeam and spot welding can be applied to titanium under thesame atmospheric conditions and manner as for stainlesssteel. When general welding methods (mainly TIG welding)are applied, stricter welding control than for stainless steelsuch as the necessity of argon gas shielding is required fortitanium. There are no fears of weldment corrosion andstress-corrosion cracking.Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal holds titanium weldingtraining courses periodically to provide appropriate guidanceon welding technology.(3) Bonding and adhesion performancesTitanium’s bonding with visco-elastic and sealing materialsand adhesion to coating film are identical to those of stain-less steel and aluminum.10. Execution and applicationsMost of the execution methods for exterior materials (roofing and walling) of conven-tional metals can likewise be applied to titanium.11. EconomicsTitanium, when used as a roofing andexterior material, may seem ratherexpensive in initial coat on a base-metal basis in comparison with othermaterials. But, the elimination ofre-painting, re-roofing and other suchneeds brings running costs steeplydown to an extremely low level. Overa long span of 20 to 30 or moreyears, titanium will come out a winnerin terms of life-cycle cost.This advantage becomes evenmore marked in highly corrosiveenvironments such as coastal, indus-trial and urban areas.Fabrication+ExecutionMaterialMaintenancecostMaintenancecostMaintenancecostTitaniumFluorocarbon resin paint-coated stainless steelAt the time of completion Fist repair Second repair Third repairAn example of construction cost comparisonbetween titanium and prepainted stainless steel[Conditions] Construction method: Welding methodApplication conditions: Titanium — Basic textureStainless steel — Fluorocarbon resin paint-bakedRepairing cycle for stainless steel: 15 to 20 years before first repair, and thereafter repainting /repair every 5 to 10 years.Due attention should be paid as corrosion conditions differ according to the composition of springwater.*Melted within two months**Melted after immersion of 10 days, —: abnormal valuePure titaniumStainless steel SUS 304Ordinary steel product SS400Tough-pitch coated steelPure zinc metalAluminum 5052NickelImmersionin the bathExposure at thespringheadImmersion atthe springheadExposure at an interiorwall of the bathhouseExposure at an exteriorwall of the bathhouse0—46.2273.660.6600.660Melted*Melted*165.94Melted**74.77341.440Melted*Melted*31.77Melted**109.4958.4901.9941.5564.832.3903.830—19.3317.110.55—1.83Roll dull, Pickling dullAluminablastingColoredtitaniumThickness(mm) (mm)70 350 650 1,000 1,219CoilsRoll dull, Pickling dull, Alumina blasting dullColored titaniumThickness(mm)Width (mm) 1,100 1,219Sheets * Colored titanium: Max. 2,400 mm in lengthTitanium and Zirconium1.2*Please feel free to contract us to discuss manufacturing to order outside of the values and specifications stated above.54Baoji Mingkun Nonferrous Metal
  5. 5. Alumina blasted titanium, which is aimed at creating the appearance of smokedtiles, is used on traditional Japanese buildings, particularly temples and shrines.Roll dull, which is our main product, is used on a great many buildings.2–1. An extensive product menu (Surface finish)When titanium is pickled, it appears whitish. This is a representative example whichshows that color-tone from one lot to another over a large area can be reduced.CBANippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal has an extensive menu of titanium materials consisting of variouscombinations of three kinds of surface finish and several tens of colors which are suitable for appli-cations ranging from modern buildings to traditional Japanese buildings and also monuments.*See Page 8.Alumina blasting finish (AD03, AD06, AD09)Pickling dull finish*(VP20)Roll dull finish (ND10, ND20, SD3)+Coloring*(anodic oxidation)BCASpherical observation deck at Fuji Television’s headquartersSurface: Roll dull (ND10)Area: 2,800 m2Weight: 14 tonsCompleted: 1996SaemangeumExhibition CenterSurface– Roll Dull (ND20)Surface: Roll Dull(ND20)Area: 4,300m2Weight: 10.4 tonsCompleted: 2011Hefei Lakeside International & Convention CenterSurface: Roll Dull (ND20)Area: 13,000m2Weight: 21 tonsCompleted: 2011Alumina blasting finishAlumina powder is blasted directlyonto the titanium.●2003 Good Design Award“Titanium temple roof/Titanium project for protecting historical buildings”● Fiscal 2005 Otani Art Museum Award“A roof made of dream material that has traditional beautyAlumina blasting finish titanium roofing and exterior materials”Showa HallSurface: Alumina blasting(AD09)Area: 4,200 m2Weight: 56 tonsCompleted: 1998Koetsuji Temple/Main hallSurface: Alumina blasting(AD03)Area: 700 m2Weight: 1.2 tonsCompleted: 1997Daichuji TempleSurface: Alumina blasting(AD03)Area: 660 m2Weight: 1.2 tonsCompleted: 2006Shimane Art MuseumSurface: Pickling dull(VP20)Area: 10,000 m2Weight: 60 tonsCompleted: 1998Roll dull finishAfter vacuum annealing (VAF), titaniummaterials are dull-finished on a skin-pass mill.Pickling dull finishA dull-finish is given by pickling andskin passing.76Baoji Mingkun Nonferrous Metaltitaniummanufacturer@yahoo.com
  6. 6. 2–2. An extensive product menu (Surface finish)B Alumina blasting + color finishA Roll dull + color finishUchinada Town OfficeSurface: Roll dull (ND20), green coloringArea: 1,700 m2Weight: 6 tonsCompleted: 1998Kitano Tenmangu/TreasurySurface: Alumina blasting (AD09), verdigris coloringArea: 1,000 m2Weight: 4 tonsCompleted: 1998Nara National Museum (No. 2 Annex)Surface: Alumina blasting (AD03), brown coloringArea: 6,000 m2Weight: 12 tonsCompleted: 1998Ashitaka ShrineSurface: Alumina blasting (AD09), verdigris coloringArea: 440 m2Weight: 0.4 tonsCompleted: 2006Ryukotokuji TempleSurface: Alumina Blasting (AD09), Verdigris coloringArea: 2,500m2Weight: 5.9 tonsCompleted: 2009When using colored titanium, please understand the following points.①The oxide film on the surface of titanium is extremely thin, so thecolor tone is strongly influenced by the surface conditions of thebase metal.Titanium sheets that have different surface finishes may appeardifferent in color, even if the titanium oxide film formed on them is thesame thickness. Also, even if sheets have the same surface finish, thecolor will differ slightly from one coil to the other.For this reason, in addition to checking the color using colorsamples, we check the color of the actual ordered material by coloringa part of the material prior to the actual coloring process. When youintend to use two or more coils, we recommend that you control thecoils jointly with the fabricator so as to minimize color differences.②Because titanium is colored by light interference, the color maysometimes appear different depending upon the season, weather,time of day, and viewing angle.When it rains, for example, the same color can look completelydifferent. This is a feature of interference colors, and you may find thatsuch a color change is a pleasing aspect of colored titanium.③ The oxide film may grow depending upon the weatheratmospheric conditions, causing the color to change.With our titanium products, there have been cases in which theoxide film grew, causing the color to change from yellow (*1) whosefilm thickness is thin, to purple over a period of about 10 years. Themain factors contributing to this phenomenon are the extreme thinnessand the narrow range of the oxide film required to produce the initialyellow color.For a customer who wants yellow, we recommend yellow (*2)because the oxide film needed to develop the color is relatively thickerand the oxide film range of that color is comparatively less narrow.Customers should note, however, that the color of any coloredtitanium may change gradually with time depending upon the environ-mental conditions.*The hue changes in the sequence gray, yellow, purple, blue, olive green, yellow, purple, and green,as the thickness of the oxide film increases.④Titanium becomes dirty like other metals. Finger marks get on it.Depending upon the type of contamination, the titanium surfacemay appear discolored, but the contamination can be removed withdetergent. Note, however, that if the contamination is allowed toremain, it may become difficult to remove.We recommend that you use a neutral detergent or ourrecommended detergent to clean titanium. If you use a detergentthat contains a strong acid, the oxide film on the surface may dissolve,preventing the original color from being restored. (See Page 15.)Colored titaniumOxide filmTitaniumWhen a thin oxide film (colorless and transparent) isformed on the titanium surface by means of the anodicoxidation method, color can be seen as a result ofinterference of light. A wide range of colors can beproduced by changing the film thickness.Coloring (Anodic oxidation)Principle of interference colorColoring of titaniumWe have constructed a quality control setup that enablesus to stably provide colored titanium construction material.① Uniform color② Technology for ensuring adhesion of the film③ Development of new products④ Development of color forming protective film, and so onPrinciple of coloring of titaniumFilm thickness (μm)GreenPurpleBlueYellow*1Yellow*2GrayPurpleOlivegreen0 0.05 0.1 0.15Relationship between film thickness and interference color(Theoretically calculated values)Colortone98Baoji Mingkun Nonferrous Metaltitaniummanufacturer@yahoo.com
  7. 7. 3–1. Development of titanium that does not readily become discoloredTest period (years)Colordifference0 5 15105101520253035 : Untreated conventional material(vacuum-annealed): Conventional pickled material: Material that does not readilybecome discolored(vacuum-annealed)Test period (days)Colordifference051015202530355 10 15: Untreated conventional material (vacuum-annealed): Conventional pickled material: Material that does not readily become discolored(pickled): Material that does not readily become discolored(vacuum-annealed)Zamami Pier, Okinawa PrefectureExposure period (years)0 1 32Colordifference24681012Note: In the above color difference range, the color difference and oxide filmthickness are proportional to each other, so the growth of the oxidefilm on the treated material is not linear.Change in color difference of gold colored titanium in Okinawain the case where conventional material and also material thatdoes not readily become discolored are used as base materialsCompleted 2002 (Photographed 2004) [Thin film gold color is maintained(Material which does not readily become discolored)]: Gold colored untreated titanium material: Gold colored titanium material thatdoes not readily become discoloredWe developed titanium for building use that does not readily become discolored, and at presentwe use it for all building material products (surface finishes) including colored materials.As a result of exposing titanium for four years in Okinawa, only a very small amount of discolorationoccurred in titanium for building use that does not readily become discolored.●The pH value of acid rain in Okinawa is roughly the mean value (pH 4.8, in 2003), but because of the high temperatureand humidity this is one of the regions in the Japan where discoloration occurs most rapidly.● The mean pH value of acid rain throughout Japan is pH 4.7, (2003 data). Note: pH 5.6 or less is acid rain; Neutral is 7.0.Exposure test for titanium building material that does not readily become discoloredResults of 4-year exposure test in OkinawaOkinawa exposure testMaterial thatdoes notreadily becomediscolored(Reduced TiC)Untreatedconventionalmaterial(Much TiC)※Colordifference: 2∼3※Color difference: 30 or moreWe established an accelerated test method that reproduced the discoloration.As a result of this test, it was found that titanium for building use that does not readily become discol-ored undergoes relatively little discoloration compared to untreated material.Accelerated test of titanium building material that does not readily become discoloredpH4, sulfuric acidResults of discoloration accelerated test of vacuum-annealed and pickled titanium (pH 4 sulfuric acid, 60°C)Results of accelerated test(The top 1/5th is the color prior to the accelerated test.)Untreatedconventionalmaterial(Vacuum-annealed)ConventionalpickledmaterialMaterial thatdoes not readilybecomediscolored(pickled)Material thatdoes not readilybecomediscolored(vacuum-annealed)When titanium for building use that does not readily become discolored is colored, the discolor-ation resistance improves remarkably.●The graph below shows the results of exposure of titanium of the color corresponding to a thin film at which thediscoloration occurs most easily (gold or yellow), in Okinawa. Even after three years’ exposure, the change in colordifference of the material, which does not readily become discolored, is very small.●The Zamami Pier (made of material that does not readily become discolored) retains its gold color two and a halfyears after it was constructed in Okinawa.Application to coloring of titanium for building use that does not readily become discolored● This technology reduces the rate of growth of theoxide film in a natural environment, and thus slowsdown the speed of discoloration. It does not stopdiscoloration from occurring.● Material that does not readily become discolored whichwas installed during or after 2000 and also material thathas been subjected to an exposure test have presentlyundergone little change in the base metal or the color,and maintains a satisfactory condition.● It is considered that there is a possibility of discol-oration occurring in tropical regions of hightemperature and humidity or regions where severeacid rain falls.●Like other metals, titanium sometimes appears discol-ored due to dirt or finger marks. Contamination can beremoved by carrying out appropriate cleaning. If thecontamination is allowed to remain, it will becomedifficult to remove.Points to note concerning titanium building material that does not readily become discolored1110Baoji Mingkun Nonferrous Metal Co.,Ltdtitaniummanufacturer@yahoo.com
  8. 8. 3–2. Development of titanium that does not readily become discoloredMechanism of discoloration of titanium (pattern diagram)Acid rain of pH 4.5 or lessTiC changes toTiO2 due to acid rain.TiVacuum-annealed (VA) TiPorous Ti Oxide-hydPickled (AP) TiTitanium carbideHot rollingDull finishVacuum annealing (Control ofthe formation of titanium carbide)Cleaning (Removal of adhering oil)Annealing and picklingDiscoloration phenomenonAt the beginning of the 1990s, some of the titaniumroofs that had been installed prior to that time changedcolor from silver to brown.The surface of titanium has a chemically stable oxidefilm (passive film). The protective action of this filmprovides excellent resistance to corrosion. If the oxide filmon the surface of the titanium (thickness approx. 0.01 μm)grows to between 0.03 and 0.05 μm, the original silversurface will appear brown as a result of interference light.This phenomenon is called discoloration of titanium. (Itdoes not adversely affect the corrosion resistance.)Mechanism of discolorationAs a result of investigating the discolored areas, aminute amount of carbide and fluorides was foundremaining in the oxide film and on the surface of thetitanium base metal. Various tests were carried out, andas a result it was found that these substances react withacid rain, causing the film to grow. The higher the atmo-spheric temperature, the more pronounced is this trend.It is known that carbon, the cause of discoloration,which is included in rolling mill lubricant used for coldrolling during the manufacture of titanium, remains on thesurface of titanium, and also fluorides, which are includedin the acid solution used for pickling subsequent to coldrolling, remain on the surface of titanium. Accordingly, weestablished manufacturing technology to remove most ofthe carbon and fluorides from the surface of the titanium.In order to evaluate the performance with respect to thediscoloration of the manufactured titanium, an exposure testwas carried out in Okinawa and also a discoloration acceler-ated test method based on the mechanism of discolorationwas developed. As a result, the effectiveness of this methodof manufacturing titanium was verified. (See Page 10.)Development of titanium building materialsthat does not readily become discoloredExamples of discoloration[The test piece is conventional vacuum-annealed material (VA).]Method of manufacturing titanium cold-rolled sheets(Points concerning the improvement of resistance to discoloration)Formation of passive filmcontaining fluoridesBefore exposureto atmosphereAfter 7 years’exposure in Oita CityPickling (Preventing the inclusionof fluorides in the surface film)Cold rolling(Carburizing from lubricating oil)4.Reduction of color-tone from one lot to another*Lot controlBase metal (uncoated) for use as a building material may often come in delicately varied color tones. Titanium is no exception.In order to prevent impairment of the class of the whole building by such an element, it is a common practice to use coils(panels) in the order of approximation and gradation in color to make color variations inconspicuous.In this case, the degree of luster of the titanium has beendeliberately varied by using two kinds of alumina blasting to givethe impression of tiles.The photographs below are representative examples of reduction of color variations.We have provided materials for a number of major properties. In the process, we have amassedthe know-how in control technologies to make products in a sufficient quantity to extensivelycover a large area, with the least possible variations in color tones between lots (coils).In addition, we are also able to provide roofing and exterior-execution companies with informationrequired for lot control*.Kyushu National Museum (17,000 m2)Hangzhou Grand Theatre (10,000 m2) Hozomon of Sensoji Temple (1,080 m2)Kyushu Oil Dome (32,000 m2)1312
  9. 9. Distortion of the material after rolling is small, and the design performance as a roof is maintained.● Sometimes during rolling, pocket waves occur on titanium. We have developed technology to reduce this phenomenon.● We have succeeded in significantly reducing pocket waves by carrying out the following subsequent to vacuum annealing.① Performing skin pass rolling by using dull rolling.② Applying waves in advance to the edges of the titanium sheetDevelopment of a material that has little distortion during formingRegarding cleaning, we recommend that you use a commercially available detergent according to the manual. We haveindependently developed three kinds of cleaning agent, and can introduce the manufacturer. We also have available strongcleaning agents (Type [B] and Type [C]) for removing discoloration. Note, however, that if you use these strong cleaning agents,the surface film will be removed as far as the base metal.Development of a suitable cleaning agentType(A)Type(B)Type(C)Cause of discolorationSteel rust, dirt, etc.Slight discoloration(growth of the oxide film)Discoloration(growth of the oxide film)Basemetal○○○Coloredtitanium○××CleaningDiscolored area①Removing adhesive remaining on the protective filmWipe off adhesive using a sponge or cloth moistened with alcohol, benzene,or thinners, or a mixed solution consisting of alcohol and toluene or benzene(in sequence from the weakest acting liquid). It is important to wipe the surfaceof the titanium with an unused, clean cloth before these solvents have dried.②Removing contamination due to finger marks or dirt from the handsIn almost all cases, you can remove contamination using a neutral detergent orsoapy water. If you are unable to do so, use an organic solvent (alcohol,benzene, etc.). In this case, you must observe the abovementioned precautions.③Removing contamination due to roofing material and concreteWipe away contamination using a sponge or cloth moistened with a 5%solution of hydrochloric acid in water.④Removing contamination due to zinc from scaffolding materialWipe away contamination using a sponge or cloth moistened with a 15%solution of nitric acid in water.⑤Removing contamination due to rainwater or dustIn almost all cases, you can wipe away contamination using a sponge or clothmoistened with a neutral detergent or an alkaline detergent. If you are unableto do so, you may be able to remove the contamination by applying a cleanercontaining an abrasive to a soft cloth, and then rubbing gently and uniformly.The above is a description of the various cleaning methods. In all cases,thoroughly wash the surface with water after cleaning, and ensure that notraces of cleaning agent remain.⑥Removing contamination from colored titaniumOf the abovementioned cleaning methods, do not remove contaminationusing hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, or a cleanser, because the film thatproduces the color will be affected, preventing the surface from beingrestored to its original condition.① There are various causes of contamination and discoloration of titaniumbuilding material, so it is necessary to use a cleaning method that matchesthe particular circumstances. Do not abruptly start cleaning the entiresurface. First carry out test cleaning on a small area, and check the removalof the contamination or discoloration. If the result of the test is satisfactory,use that method to clean the entire surface.② When using a cleaning implement such as a cloth, sponge, loofah,scrubbing brush, cleaning brush, fine nylon pad, and so on, be sure to moveit in the direction parallel to the polishing marks on the titanium. Also, moveyour hand in such a way as to apply a uniform force as far as possible. If youmove the cleaning implement in circles, the contamination will be difficult toremove, and also the luster lines will be erased and color irregularity willoccur, marring the appearance of the titanium surface.③ Even in the case of fairy stubborn contamination, avoid using a coarsepolishing agent, sandpaper, steel wool, or the like. Not only will this erasethe luster lines on the titanium, but also the surface will become scratched,which may cause it to become contaminated.④When using a commercially available cleaning reagent to remove contamina-tion from the surface of titanium, clean not only the contaminated part butalso the vicinity as well. If you clean the titanium surface only partially,irregular color will occur, marring the appearance of the titanium.⑤When cleaning building tiles, marble, aluminum, and so on, if the cleaningreagent that you used splashes on the surface of the titanium, be sure towipe away the reagent with a damp cloth. If you leave the reagent on thetitanium, discoloration may occur.⑥In the case of colored titanium, consult with the manufacturer prior to use.Cleaning method Precautions for cleaningApplication of edge waves ⇨ RollingNo edge waves ⇨ RollingApplication of edge waves ⇨ Rolling (with ribs) ⇨ Seam weldingRolled cross-sectional shape300 mmShape after installation(welding method)Shape after rolling (stepped roofing)Kyushu National Museum(Constructed by Sanko Metal Industrial Co., Ltd.) Example of cleaning Developed cleaning agents5.A wealth of application technology※If there are places in the roof and other areas where rainwater is liable to form pools, titanium becomes contaminated like any other metal.Contamination, if left unattended, may sometimes become hard to remove. Contamination due to drips of calking material also becomes hard toremove with time. It is recommended that all these points be taken into consideration in the early design stages.1514
  10. 10. The Taipei Arena is the first instance of full-fledged use of titanium in Taiwan.Examples of use of titanium for building applications©Tsuyoshi OnishiRoll dull (ND20) was used in the T.C.M. (Titanium Composite Material) of Mitsubishi Plastics.We offer particularly lustrous colored products for Frank O. Gehry’s projectsNational Grand Theater (China)Surface: Roll dull (ND20)Area: 43,000 m2Weight: 65 tonsCompleted: 2007Hangzhou Grand Theatre (China)Surface: Roll dull (ND20)Area: 10,000 m2Weight: 15 tonsCompleted: 2003Taipei Arena (Taiwan)Surface: Roll dull (ND20)Area: 20,000 m2Weight: 50 tonsCompleted: 2005Hotel Marques de Riscal (Spain)Surface: Roll dull (SD3)Area: 2,400 m2Weight: 12 tonsCompleted: 20041716
  11. 11. The Kyushu Oil Dome is the first example of the use of titanium that does not readily become discolored. Roll dull (ND20) was used. The teahouse of the Kinkakuji Temple, which is a World Heritage site, uses alumina blasting.Examples of use of titanium for building applicationsJR Hakodate Station is the first structure where titanium building materials were adopted for exterior panels on a full scale, as a resultof their feature of being resistant to changes in color.The roof of the Hozomon of Sensoji Temple was the first instance of using titanium Japanese tiles. Also, our highly workable material,Super-Pure Flex, has been used for the ridge-end tiles.Kyushu Oil DomeSurface: Roll dull (ND20)Area: 32,000 m2Weight: 80 tonsCompleted: 2001JR Hakodate StationSurface: Roll dull (ND20)Area: 1,000 m2Weight: 7 tonsCompleted: 2003Teahouse (Josokutei)of Kinkakuji TempleSurface: Alumina blasting (AD03)Area: 100 m2Weight: 0.5 tonsCompleted: 2003Hozomon of Sensoji TempleSurface: Alumina blasting (AD03, AD06)Area: 1,000 m2Weight: 8 tonsCompleted: 2007●Awarded the Fiscal 2006 Otani ArtMuseum Award“Titanium stepped Japanese tile roofand ridge-end tiles”1918
  12. 12. Reference materialsGoldIridiumPlatinumRhodiumPalladiumMercurySilverCopperBismuthArsenicCarbonLeadNickelCobaltCadmiumIronTinMolybdenumTungstenGalliumZincNiobiumTantalumChromiumVanadiumManganeseZirconiumAluminumTitaniumBerylliumMagnesium1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303112345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031RhodiumNiobiumTantalumGoldIridiumPlatinumTitaniumPalladiumMercuryGalliumZirconiumSilverTinCopperBerylliumAluminumChromiumBismuthTungstenIronNickelCobaltArsenicCarbonLeadCadmiumZincMolybdenumVanadiumMagnesiumManganeseOrdersofthermodynamicstabilizationOrdersofpracticalstabilizationinsolutionTable 1. Orders of stabilization of metalsExamples of use of titanium for building applicationsTitanium roofing with an alumina blasting finish adopted for the teahouse of the Raku Kichizaemon-Kan, newly opened on the premisesof the “Sagawa Art Museum” in Moriyama City, Shiga Prefecture.Gold titanium used in the construction of the roof of the Miyajidake Shrine.Teahouse (Raku Kichizaemon-Kan)of Sagawa Art MuseumSurface: Alumina blasting (AD03)Area: 400 m2Weight: 1 tonsCompleted: 2007Miyajidake ShrineSurface: Roll Dull (ND20), Gold coloringArea: 220m2Weight: 0.86tonsCompleted: 2010123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930OxygenSiliconAluminumIronCalciumSodiumPotassiumMagnesiumHydrogenTitaniumChlorineManganesePhosphorusCarbonSulfurNitrogenFluorineRubidiumBariumZirconiumChromiumStrontiumVanadiumNickelCopperTungstenLithiumCeriumCobaltTinOSiAlFeCaNaKMgHTiClMnPCSNFRbBaZrCrSrVNiCuWLiCeCoSn49.5025.807.564.703.392.632.401.930.870.460. Element Existing ratio (%) Accumulated totalTable 2. Clarke number (Note)Table 3. Corrosion potential in seawater (Flow)Sea water-aerated atmospheric conditions (25°C)(Note)Clarke Number: The ratio of elements found in the upper layer of the earth’s crust. Named afterthe American geochemist F.W. Clarke (source: The Chemistry Encyclopedia )Titanium is the 10thmost common element found in the upper layers of the earth’s crust, and interms of metals that are of practical use, it comes fourth after aluminum, iron and magnesium.+0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1.0PlatinumPlatinumTitaniumTitaniumStainless steel (SUS 304)Stainless steel (SUS 304)LeadLeadNaval brassNaval brassAluminum bronzeAluminum bronze90/10 Copper nickel90/10 Copper nickel70/30 Copper nickel70/30 Copper nickelNickelNickel9% Nickel steel9% Nickel steel3 Chromium molybdenum steel3 Chromium molybdenum steelMild steelMild steelTinTinAluminumAluminumZincZincKagaku Daijiten2120