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Chapter 14 north and south


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Differentiating the economies of the North and South

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Chapter 14 north and south

  1. 1. North and South Chapter 14 pp. 406 - 429
  2. 2. Section 1: Industry in the North <ul><li>Main Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>As the Northern economy grew, new inventions and faster transportation changed the way goods were manufactured and shipped. </li></ul>
  3. 3. New Inventions <ul><li>New inventions for farming were created in the North including new plows , reapers and drills. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jethro Wood’s iron plow had replaceable parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Deere invented the more lightweight steel plow. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Telegraph <ul><li>Invented by Samuel Morse in 1844. </li></ul><ul><li>The device sent electrical signals down a wire in a code of dots, dashes, and spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication across the country got faster and improved business efficiency. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The First Railroads <ul><li>Locomotive – the engine that pulls railroad cars. </li></ul><ul><li>People didn’t like the idea of railroads at first: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some feared losing jobs as wagon drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were many accidents including breakdowns and fires. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eventually problems were fixed and by the 1850’s the railroad system was all over the country. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Yankee Clippers <ul><li>Demand for imports and exports led to the need for fast trade ships. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large masts and huge sails helped the ships use more wind to move the ship faster. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the 1850’s, English iron steamships were being used. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were faster and sturdier than wooden clipper ships. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Northern Economy Expands <ul><li>Many factors led to an expansion of the Northern economy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine-Produced goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroad distribution of goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Northern farmers left their homes to work in factories or as clerks or sailors due to the importation of cheap food from the West . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Section 2: Life in the North <ul><li>Main Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Industry in the North changed with the arrival of new immigrants and the efforts of factory workers to improve their working conditions . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Factory Conditions Become Worse <ul><li>Artisans made small amounts of quality goods by hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Factory owners were more interested in volume ; more goods = more money. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers labored for over 12 hours a day in unsafe conditions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes entire families worked in one factory. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Workers Join Together <ul><li>Artisans formed trade unions to argue for better wages and conditions . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If their demands were not listened to, worker would stop working ( strike ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women workers in New England textile mills organized as well. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarah Bagley formed the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. A New Wave of Immigrants <ul><li>Many people immigrated to America in the early 1840’s due to famines in Ireland and Germany . </li></ul><ul><li>Some native-born Americans feared losing jobs to immigrants ( Nativists ). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know-Nothing Party – An anti-immigrant, anti- Catholic political party who met in secret. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When asked, members said, “I know nothing.” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. African Americans in the North <ul><li>There was discrimination against free African Americans in the North. </li></ul><ul><li>Some African Americans were successful. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William Whipper – Lumberyard owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Boyd – Owned a furniture business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Blair – invented a corn planting machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macon Allen – first African American lawyer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Russwurn – editor of the first African American newspaper. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Section 3: Cotton Kingdom in the South <ul><li>Main Idea </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton was the leading crop in the agricultural economy of the South </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom <ul><li>Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin made processing raw cotton faster. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton profits grew. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cotton farming expanded to the West , as did slavery . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More slaves were needed to pick more cotton on bigger farms. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. An Agricultural Economy / Economically Dependent <ul><li>Cotton was not the only cash crop of the South. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar Cane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industry was limited to meeting the needs of the community , not for export . </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the lack of local industry, the South became dependent on the North for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Section 4: Life in the South <ul><li>Main Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Most white southerners were not plantation owners; however, the plantation system and slavery were the center of southern life. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The “Cottonocracy” <ul><li>Wealthy planters with 20 or more slaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 3% of Southerners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 1% had more than 50 slaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most southern whites were not part of the “Cottonocracy.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Farmers – 75 % of the population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked in the fields along side the slaves . </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. African Americans in the South <ul><li>Free African Americans : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most lived in the northern part of the South (Maryland, Delaware) where slavery was declining. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave owners made life very hard for free African Americans. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enslaved African Americans : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of the Southern population by 1860 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most lived difficult lives and were mistreated and abused. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave Codes were laws that restricted the lives of slaves including learning to read or meet in groups. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Family Life and Religion <ul><li>Families of slaves were often separated and sold, but extended families that were able to stay together were a source of strength , pride, and love. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion helped slaves cope with the conditions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most slaves were devout Christians and would sing hymns and spirituals while working the fields. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Resistance Against Slavery <ul><li>Some slaves escaped to the North, others would resist by breaking tools, destroying crops, and stealing food. </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark Vesey was executed before he could stage a revolt. </li></ul><ul><li>Nat Turner and his followers killed 57 whites over two months before being caught and hung. </li></ul>