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Communication

, business communication , formal communication , informal communication , verbal communication , non verbal communication , communication , methods of communication , barriers to communication

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“The art of communication is the language of leadership”
-James Humes
“We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen
twice as much as we speak”
-Epictetus
“Communication is the transfer of information from one
person to another person. It is a way of reaching others by
transmitting ideas, facts, thoughts, emotions, feelings and
values.” Or
“Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions, or
emotions by two or more persons.”
1. A message which is to be communicated.
2. A sender who sends the message.
3. A medium through which a message is sent.
4. A receiver who receives the message.
5. Feedback from the receiver.
Sender
Encoding
Message
Medium
Receiver
Decoding
Communication
1. Intra-personal Communication:
communication with self. One thinks and introspects.
2. Interpersonal: direct, face to face communication
between two persons
3. Group communication: interaction with a number
of people in order to share information, develop ideas,
make decisions, solve problems, amusement.

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Communication

  • 1. “The art of communication is the language of leadership” -James Humes “We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak” -Epictetus
  • 2. “Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another person. It is a way of reaching others by transmitting ideas, facts, thoughts, emotions, feelings and values.” Or “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions, or emotions by two or more persons.”
  • 3. 1. A message which is to be communicated. 2. A sender who sends the message. 3. A medium through which a message is sent. 4. A receiver who receives the message. 5. Feedback from the receiver.
  • 6. 1. Intra-personal Communication: communication with self. One thinks and introspects. 2. Interpersonal: direct, face to face communication between two persons 3. Group communication: interaction with a number of people in order to share information, develop ideas, make decisions, solve problems, amusement.
  • 7. 4. Public communication: persuasion of audience to hold certain attitudes, values, or beliefs, so that they think, believe or act in a certain way 5. Non verbal communication: includes- facial expressions, eye contact, body language, gestures, proximity, touch personal appearance. 6. Mass communication: includes tools such as, books, internet, cinema, television, radio , newspaper etc.
  • 9. 1. Non-Verbal: Nonverbal Communication (without use of words) has been defined as communication without words. It includes apparent behaviors such as facial expressions, eyes, touching, and tone of voice, appearance, posture as well as less obvious messages such as dress, posture and spatial distance between two or more people.
  • 12. Advantages of non- verbal communication:  Reliability  Efficient  Credibility  Accurate understanding of attitude Limitations of non verbal communication:  Lack of secrecy  Small pieces of info  Misunderstanding  Confrontation required  Lack of proof  Fails to discuss past events and ideas
  • 13. 2. Verbal: When messages or information is exchanged or communicated through words is called verbal communication. a) Oral: It is that channel of communication in which message is conveyed in spoken form Advantages of oral communication:  Quickness in exchange  Quick feedback  Flexibility  Economic source  Personal touch
  • 14.  Effective source  Motivation  Effectiveness Limitations:  Unfit for lengthy message  Unfit for policy matters  Lack of written proof  Lack of clarity  Parties must be present
  • 15. b) Written: Information is exchanged in written or printed form. Advantages:  Lengthy message  Written proof  Clear message  Presence of both parties not necessary  True and effective
  • 16. Limitations:  Illiteracy  Lack of secrecy  Wastage of time  Delayed feedback  Requirement of equipments  Possibility of Misinterpretation
  • 18. 1. Formal: it is the form of communication that flows along a prescribes network.  Downward, upward, horizontal or  Single chain, wheel, circular, free flow, inverted v
  • 21. Advantages:  Maintenance of authority  Clear and effective  Orderly flow  Wider scope  Filtration Disadvantages:  Increased workload  Distortion/leakage  Dilution of accuracy  Overlooking by the officers
  • 22. 2. Grapevine: A secondary network consisting primarily of personal communication.  Types: single strand, gossip, probability, cluster
  • 24. Advantages:  Speedy  Multi-dimensional  Dynamic  Supplementary to formal communication Limitations:  Distortion  Erratic message  Lack of responsibility  Rumor
  • 25. It is a grapevine information which is communicated without any standard of evidence being present. Dealing with rumor: 1. Reduction of causes 2. Listening to rumor 3. Providing facts 4. Use of reliable sources 5. Use of trade union
  • 26.  Miscommunication: it is a ruined form of communication. What is to be communicated does not get communicated and an obstructed form of the message is transmitted.  Barriers to Communication: the sum total of all the factors that can distort or prevent communication.
  • 28. 1. Semantic/Linguistic: It is the study of words or their meanings.  Wrongly expressed message  Faulty translation  Unclarified Assumption  Use of technical language 2. Organizational Barrier: Prevention of effective communication due to organizational structure.  Organizational policies  Organizational rules  Status relationship  Complexity in structure  Organizational facilities
  • 29. 3. Personal Barriers: Directly concerned with the interpersonal relationship between sender and receiver. 1) Barriers related to superiors:  Attitude  Fear of position  Insistence on proper channel  Shortage of time  Lack of attention 2) Barriers related to subordinates:  Unwillingness to communicate  Lack of proper incentive
  • 30. 4. Emotional or psychological or perceptional barriers: These barriers of communication occur due to the mental condition of sender or receiver.  Premature evaluation  Emotional attitude  Poor retention of information  Inattention
  • 31. Effective communication is communication that is clearly and successfully delivered, received and understood. How to make communication effective:  Clarity in idea  Purpose of communication  Empathy in communication
  • 32.  Two way communication  Appropriate language  Supporting words with action  Credibility in communication  Good listening  Facilitate feedback
  • 33. 1. The following is (are) non-verbal communication a) Facial expression b) Appearance c) Posture d) All of the above
  • 34. 2. Communication is the task of imparting ________ a) Training b) Information c) Knowledge d) Message
  • 35. 3. Which of these is an aspect of communication? a) Facial Expressions b) Misinterpretation c) Posture d) Message
  • 36. 4. “Persuasion of audience to hold certain attitudes, values, or beliefs, so that they think, believe or act in a certain way” a) Group Discussion b) Inter-Personal Communication c) Mass Communication d) Public Speaking
  • 37. 5. Which of these is not an advantage of oral Communication? a) Quick feedback b) Illiteracy c) Flexibility d) Personal touch
  • 38. 6. ‘Reading’ is a part of _________ Communication. a) Non-Verbal b) Written c) Speaking d) Intra-Personal
  • 39. 7. “In this form of communication, all the subordinates of a superior talk to one another through his medium.” a) Cluster b) Circular c) Inverted-V d) Wheel Network
  • 40. 8. Which of these is an organizational barrier? a) Fear of Position b) Use of technical language c) Lack of proper incentive d) All of the above
  • 41. 9. Which of these is not a measure to effective communication? a) Appropriate language b) Supporting words with action c) Credibility in communication d) Presence of both parties