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What Is Sport? Intro to Sport Management

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What Is Sport? Intro to Sport Management

  1. 2. <ul><li>Who was the first institution to introduce Sports Administration as a major? </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between sport and sports. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain 3 different ways of organizing (segmenting) the sport industry. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the four unique aspects of SM that make it different from other business enterprises? </li></ul><ul><li>Most undergraduate SM programs include what 3 components? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the four stages of career planning. </li></ul>
  2. 4. <ul><li>Figure Skating </li></ul><ul><li>Rocketry </li></ul><ul><li>Chess </li></ul><ul><li>Dance </li></ul><ul><li>Horse Racing </li></ul><ul><li>Diving </li></ul><ul><li>Polo </li></ul><ul><li>Bobsledding </li></ul><ul><li>Billiards </li></ul><ul><li>Archery </li></ul><ul><li>Automobile Racing </li></ul><ul><li>Equestrian </li></ul><ul><li>Table Tennis </li></ul><ul><li>Cheerleading </li></ul><ul><li>Bowling </li></ul><ul><li>Golf </li></ul><ul><li>Speed Skating </li></ul><ul><li>Handball </li></ul><ul><li>Walking </li></ul><ul><li>Rowing </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Sport is any activity, experience or business enterprise focused on fitness, recreation, athletics or leisure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitts, Fielding & Miller (1994) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Sport s implies a collection of separate activities such as golf, soccer, hockey, volleyball, softball, and gymnastics </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Sport is an all-encompassing concept. It is a collective noun that includes all sporting activities </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>In the past… Sport Administrators worked in the public sector and Sport Managers worked in the private sector </li></ul><ul><li>Presently, there is little differences in definition </li></ul>Sport Management Sport Administration Sports Management Sports Administration
  7. 9. <ul><li>It is all people, activity, businesses and organizations involved in producing, facilitating, promoting or organizing sports, fitness and recreational products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitts & Stotlar (1996) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Sport Management is also the name given to many university level academic programs designed to prepare students to assume positions in the sport industry </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>“ Careers & Opportunities in Sports” (1964) by Stan Isaccs </li></ul><ul><li>Defined what were sport management jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sport Trading Cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sport Art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sport TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sport Journalist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who was the first institution to introduce Sport Administration as a major? </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Ohio University introduced the 1 st Sports Administration program in 1966 </li></ul><ul><li>Walter O’Malley had the idea </li></ul><ul><li>James Mason developed the curriculum </li></ul>
  11. 16. <ul><li>Sport marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sport is consumed as quickly as it is produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a perishable product, not accompanied by any guarantee of consumer satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those providing the experience cannot predict the outcome </li></ul></ul>
  12. 17. <ul><li>Sport enterprise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sport enterprises earn a highly significant portion of revenues not from the sale of service such as the game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most revenue is made from extraneous sources such as TV rights, concessions, road games guarantees, parking & merchandise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>**You want consumers to spend more money outside the sporting event than they would on the sport itself </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>Sport Industry Career Paths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not as well defined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sport is still a closed society </li></ul></ul>
  14. 19. <ul><li>School & college </li></ul><ul><li>Professional sport </li></ul><ul><li>Amateur sport organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Private club sport </li></ul><ul><li>Commercialized sport </li></ul><ul><li>Arenas, coliseums, civic centers & stadiums </li></ul><ul><li>Community recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial sport programs </li></ul><ul><li>Sport programs in social agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Military sport programs </li></ul><ul><li>Sport marketing & consulting firms </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental programs </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate sponsors </li></ul><ul><li>Sporting goods industry </li></ul><ul><li>Sport news media </li></ul><ul><li>Academic programs </li></ul>VanderZwaag (1998) p. 8
  15. 21. <ul><li>Collegiate sports information director </li></ul><ul><li>Executive director-regional sports commission </li></ul><ul><li>Sport journalist-broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>Sales rep-sport surfacing manufacturer/supplier </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing director-International Special Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>Sport journalist-print </li></ul><ul><li>Legal consultant-sport business licensing company </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing director-racetrack </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing manager-professional golf tournament </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities design consultant-sport facility architectural company </li></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><li>Collegiate sports information director (Performance) </li></ul><ul><li>Executive director-regional sports commission (Production) </li></ul><ul><li>Sport journalist-broadcast (Promotion) </li></ul><ul><li>Sales rep-sport surfacing manufacturer/supplier (Production) </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing director-International Special Olympics (Performance) </li></ul><ul><li>Sport journalist-print (Promotion) </li></ul><ul><li>Legal consultant-sport business licensing company (Promotion) </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing director-racetrack (Performance) </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing manager-professional golf tournament (Performance) </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities design consultant-sport facility architectural company (Production) </li></ul>
  17. 23. <ul><li>$194.64 Billion in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>It is constantly growing & developing </li></ul>
  18. 25. <ul><li>Sponsorship </li></ul><ul><li>Media broadcast rights </li></ul><ul><li>Endorsements </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia (Magazines, computer video games, DVDs, books) </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Spending </li></ul><ul><li>Spectator Spending (tickets, concessions, parking, merchandise) </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Expenses (not including travel) </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Professional services (facility management, financial legal, insurance, marketing, agents) </li></ul><ul><li>Facility construction </li></ul><ul><li>Licensed goods </li></ul><ul><li>Internet (Ads, fees) </li></ul><ul><li>Sporting Goods </li></ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul><ul><li>Gambling </li></ul>
  19. 26. <ul><li>Ad spending: $229.9 M </li></ul><ul><li>Subscriber fees: $9.2 M </li></ul>
  20. 27. <ul><li>Endorsement value of the top 75 athletes coaches, and sport personalities: $598 M </li></ul>
  21. 28. <ul><li>Magazines: $943.7 M </li></ul><ul><li>Computer & Video Games: 750 M </li></ul><ul><li>Videos & DVDs: $279.9 M </li></ul><ul><li>Books: $146.4 M </li></ul>
  22. 29. <ul><li>U.S. Stadiums/motor speedways: $1.44 B </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. arenas: $1.04 B </li></ul>
  23. 30. <ul><li>Any money spent on sponsorship of leagues, teams, broadcast and events </li></ul>
  24. 31. <ul><li>Big Four leagues plus NASCAR: $5.29 B </li></ul><ul><li>Colleges: $1.06 B </li></ul><ul><li>Other: $640 </li></ul>
  25. 32. <ul><li>NFL: $2.5 B </li></ul><ul><li>All colleges: $2.5 B </li></ul><ul><li>MLB: $2.3 B </li></ul><ul><li>NASCAR: $1.2 B </li></ul><ul><li>NBA: $1 B </li></ul><ul><li>NHL: $900 M </li></ul><ul><li>Other: $100 M </li></ul>
  26. 33. <ul><li>Soccer: $3.39 B </li></ul><ul><li>Baseball: $2.16 B </li></ul><ul><li>Softball $1.28 B </li></ul><ul><li>Football: $1.27 B </li></ul><ul><li>Track & Field: $1.12B </li></ul><ul><li>Gymnastics: $1.08 B </li></ul><ul><li>Basketball: $948.1 M </li></ul><ul><li>Wrestling: $399.1 M </li></ul><ul><li>Volleyball: $246.5 M </li></ul><ul><li>Ice Hockey: $182.6 M </li></ul><ul><li>Other: $523.7 M </li></ul>
  27. 34. <ul><li>Facility & Event Management: $6.75 B </li></ul><ul><li>Financial, legal and insurance services: $5.81 B </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing & consulting services: $2.3 B </li></ul><ul><li>Athlete representation: $385 M </li></ul>
  28. 35. <ul><li>Spectators: $12.4 B </li></ul><ul><li>Colleges: $1.11 B </li></ul><ul><li>Big Four: $335.4 M </li></ul><ul><li>Minor Leagues: $113.4 M </li></ul><ul><li>Other: $2.1 B </li></ul>
  29. 36. <ul><li>Pari-mutuels (including horse/greyhound racing): $14.69 B </li></ul><ul><li>Internet: $2.17 B </li></ul><ul><li>Legal sports books: $2.04 B </li></ul>
  30. 37. <ul><li>Big Four player payroll: $6.1 B </li></ul><ul><li>Big Four other: $5.81 B </li></ul><ul><li>Colleges: $6.04 B </li></ul><ul><li>Minor Leagues: $600 M </li></ul><ul><li>Other: $4.44 B </li></ul>
  31. 38. <ul><li>Equipment used in competition: $10.14 B </li></ul><ul><li>Sportswear used in competition: $7.98 B </li></ul><ul><li>Footwear used in competition: $7.5 B </li></ul>
  32. 39. <ul><li>Ticket Sales: $11.74 B </li></ul><ul><li>Concessions, parking, on-site merchandise sales: $10.7 B </li></ul><ul><li>Premium seating revenue: $3.73 B </li></ul>
  33. 40. <ul><li>Billboards, arena/stadium signage: $16.39 B </li></ul><ul><li>National network TV: $4.69 B </li></ul><ul><li>Radio: $2.34 B </li></ul><ul><li>National cable TV: $1.78 B </li></ul><ul><li>Sports magazines: $1.45 B </li></ul><ul><li>Regional TV: $570 M </li></ul><ul><li>National syndicated TV: $210.1 M </li></ul>
  34. 41. <ul><li>Intercollegiate Athletics </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Sports </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Management </li></ul><ul><li>Campus Recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Community-based Sports </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Information </li></ul><ul><li>Sport Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Club Management </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Athletic Training & Sports Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship </li></ul>Parks & Zanger (1990)
  35. 42. <ul><li>No other industry or business is viewed as simplistically by individuals who are not directly working in it </li></ul><ul><li>No other industry has as much personal identification with is consumers </li></ul><ul><li>A sport management degree may not qualify you as an expert to those inside and outside of the industry </li></ul>
  36. 43. <ul><li>Many people believe they could work in sport with no official training or certification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>52% think they could play for a pro-team if they practiced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>72% think they could officiate better than the officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>51% think they can coach better than the coach </li></ul></ul>
  37. 44. <ul><li>The hours are long & the pay may be low </li></ul>Avg. Hr/wk Underpaid in position All Employees underpaid Big 4 Leagues/Teams 60.8 45.6% 73.4% Other Leagues/Teams 58.24 36.8% 77.6% Colleges 58.34 50.8% 49.2% Sport Marketing Agencies 55.58 47.8% 63% Stadium/arena/track 55.25 52.6% 45.6% Corporation/manufacturers 53.56 69.6% 52.2% Broadcast/media 53.33 33.3% 33.3%
  38. 45. <ul><li>A LOT of people want to work in sports!!! </li></ul>
  39. 46. <ul><li>Approximately 250 Sport Management Programs </li></ul><ul><li>~50 (students/program) X 250 (schools) = 12,500 people that want to work in sport…JUST LIKE YOU! </li></ul><ul><li>So what are you going to do to stand out? </li></ul>
  40. 47. <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty/Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal/Relating to others </li></ul><ul><li>Strong work ethic </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork skills </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical skills </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation/Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility/Adaptability </li></ul><ul><li>Computer skills </li></ul><ul><li>Detail-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership skills </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational skills </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly/outgoing personality </li></ul><ul><li>Tactful/polite </li></ul><ul><li>3.0 or better GPA </li></ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial/risk-taker </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of humor </li></ul>

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